Tuesday January 22, 2019

Healthy lifestyle crucial for cancer prevention

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New York: Offering a new explanation for what drives cancer, recent research has shown that cells with cancerous mutations can suddenly find themselves most fit, allowing their population to expand when the tissue ecosystem changes due to ageing, smoking, or other stressors. mother-491952_640

Arguing against the commonly held “accumulation of mutations” model of cancer, the study favors a model that depends on evolutionary pressures acting on populations of cells. It, therefore, contends that the ecosystem of a healthy tissue landscape lets healthy cells out compete ones with cancerous mutations.

This new thinking about what drives cancer development may have profound implications for cancer therapy and drug design.

“We have been trying to make drugs that target mutations in cancer cells,” said study senior author James DeGregori, associate director for basic science at University of Colorado Cancer Center in the US.

“But if it is the ecosystem of the body, and not only cancer-causing mutations, that allows the growth of cancer, we should also be prioritizing interventions and lifestyle choices that promote the fitness of healthy cells in order to suppress the emergence of cancer,” said DeGregori.

The proposed model, presented in the journal PNAS, helps to answer a longstanding question in cancer science known as Peto’s Paradox — if cancer is due to random activating mutation, larger animals with more cells should be at greater risk of developing the disease earlier in their lives.

Well, then why do mammals of vastly different sizes and lifespans all seem to develop cancer mostly late in life? The answer to this proposed by researchers is that in addition to activating mutation, cancer may require age-associated changes to the tissue landscape in order for evolution to favor the survival and growth of cancer cells over the competition from healthy cells.

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Risk Of Suicide Quadruples With Cancer: Study

The results could be used to help identify patients who may be at a higher risk for suicide and help health care providers tailor their treatments accordingly.

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A Family In Delhi Commits Suicide To Thank God: Police Reports
While the risk of suicide decreases five years after a diagnosis, the risk remains high for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer.

People with cancer are over four times more likely to commit suicide than people without the deadly disease, finds a study.

According to researchers from the Penn State Cancer Institute in Pennsylvania, while a lot of progress has been made in treating cancer, not as much research has been put into how cancer affects patients mentally and emotionally.

“Even though cancer is one of the leading causes of death, most cancer patients do not die from cancer, the patients usually die of another cause,” said Nicholas Zaorsky, radiation oncologist at the Penn State Cancer Institute.

“There are multiple competing risks for death, and one of them is suicide. Distress and depression can arise from cancer diagnosis, treatment, financial stress, and other causes. Ultimately, distress and depression may lead to suicide. Our goal was to quantify the risk of suicide among cancer patients,” he added.

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The study, published in the Nature Communications journal, the team compared the risk of suicide in eight million patients who had been diagnosed with cancer and those without.

They found that among people with cancer, males, patients who were diagnosed at a younger age, patients with lung, head, neck and testicular cancer, and lymphomas were more likely to commit suicide.

While the risk of suicide decreases five years after a diagnosis, the risk remains high for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer.

“Treatments for some cancers — like leukemia and testicular cancer among adolescents and young adults, for example — can decrease a patient’s fertility, and that seems to be one of the risks for suicide in the long term,” Zaorsky said.

Also Read: Here’s What Causes Cancer in Children

“In contrast, elderly patients who are diagnosed with lung, prostate and head and neck cancers, are at an increased risk of suicide for the remainder of their life.”

The results could be used to help identify patients who may be at a higher risk for suicide and help health care providers tailor their treatments accordingly. (IANS)