Monday April 22, 2019

High Level Of Insulin in Infants May Rise Chances Of Brain Damage

"One of the problems facing clinicians is that it's really difficult to predict which babies will have problems after surgical treatment," said Karen Cosgrove, from the varsity.

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Spreading focal lesions are generally larger and spread outwards into areas of healthy cells, while isolated focal lesions, have a capsule around them that keeps the diseased cells separate from healthy cells. Pixabay

Babies born with abnormally high levels of insulin are at the risk of suffering permanent brain damage and life-long disability, finds a study that showed it’s possible to predict when and how the condition may affect the child in the long-term.

The generally rare condition, called congenital hyperinsulinism, can also be as common as cystic fibrosis in children born into communities where cousins marry.

So far, scientists understood that there were two main subtypes of the disease known as diffuse — affects the entire pancreas — and focal — affects just one area of the organ.

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In contrast, in infants with isolated lesions, the disease was diagnosed later and surgery to remove the lesion was less complicated. Pixabay

In contrast, in infants with isolated lesions, the disease was diagnosed later and surgery to remove the lesion was less complicated.

The new study, led by a team from the University of Manchester in the UK, showed that focal CHI can be further categorised into two types — spreading focal lesions and isolated focal lesions.

Spreading focal lesions are generally larger and spread outwards into areas of healthy cells, while isolated focal lesions, have a capsule around them that keeps the diseased cells separate from healthy cells.

For the study, published in the Frontiers in Endocrinology journal, the team investigated the cases of 25 infants with focal CHI to see how the two types of lesions influenced their long-term outcomes.

They found babies with spreading focal lesions suffered more severely from the disease and were diagnosed earlier. These infants were more likely to suffer brain damage, which permanently affected their development, learning and behaviour.

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The generally rare condition, called congenital hyperinsulinism, can also be as common as cystic fibrosis in children born into communities where cousins marry. Pixabay

In contrast, in infants with isolated lesions, the disease was diagnosed later and surgery to remove the lesion was less complicated.

These data help to explain why newborn babies diagnosed with the same disease may go on to have very different outcomes and could influence the way clinicians choose to manage each new case of CHI.

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“One of the problems facing clinicians is that it’s really difficult to predict which babies will have problems after surgical treatment,” said Karen Cosgrove, from the varsity.

“Our data gives some important clues that will help clinicians to know how much extra care each baby is likely to need,” Cosgrove said. (IANS)

 

 

Next Story

Researchers Develop, New Adhesive Patch That Can Minimize Heart Attack Damage

For the research, published in Nature Biomedical Engineering, the team tested the patch with rats and showed that the patch could be effective in reducing post-heart attack damage. 

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The researchers said the patch, which costs "less than a penny", has been optimised using a computer model of the heart to perfectly match the material's mechanical properties. Pixabay

Researchers have developed a new adhesive patch that could reduce the stretching of cardiac muscle following a heart attack.

Developed by a team of researchers from Brown University, US; Fudan University, China and Soochow University, China, the patch is made from a water-based hydrogel material and can be placed directly on the heart to prevent left ventricular remodelling — a stretching of the heart muscle.

A heart attack puts the cardiac muscle at a risk of stretching out that can reduce the functioning of the heart’s main pumping chamber.

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The researchers say the initial results are promising for eventual use in human clinical trials. Pixabay

“Part of the reason that it’s hard for the heart to recover after a heart attack is that it has to keep pumping,” said co-author Huajian Gao, a professor at Brown University.

“The idea here is to provide mechanical support for damaged tissue, which hopefully gives it a chance to heal,” he added.

The researchers said the patch, which costs “less than a penny”, has been optimised using a computer model of the heart to perfectly match the material’s mechanical properties.

“If the material is too hard or stiff, then you could confine the movement of the heart so that it can’t expand to the volume it needs to,” Gao said.

“But if the material is too soft, then it won’t provide enough support. So we needed some mechanical principles to guide us,” he pointed out.

For the research, published in Nature Biomedical Engineering, the team tested the patch with rats and showed that the patch could be effective in reducing post-heart attack damage.

heart
A heart attack puts the cardiac muscle at a risk of stretching out that can reduce the functioning of the heart’s main pumping chamber. Pixabay

“The patch provided nearly optimal mechanical supports after myocardial infarction (i.e. massive death of cardiomyocytes),” said co-author Ning Sun, a cardiology researcher at Fudan University.

“[It] maintained a better cardiac output and thus greatly reduced the overload of those remaining cardiomyocytes and adverse cardiac remodelling.”

Also Read: China’s Political System Helps It To Take A Lead in Artificial Intelligence

The researchers say the initial results are promising for eventual use in human clinical trials.

“It remains to be seen if it will work in humans, but it’s very promising,” Gao said. (IANS)