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History of Kohinoor as explained by William Dalrymple

There is no doubt, the Antique rock has a long and complicating history and it is difficult to resolve to which country it belongs to

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Kohinoor Diamond Source: Wikimedia commons
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By Akanksha Sharma

For the past few days, the precious Kohinoor Diamond has been hitting the news again. The Indian govt. informed the court that, the eminent colorless diamond was ‘gifted’ and not forcefully taken away by the British. This revelation by the govt.  has acted as an incentive towards the ongoing debate, whether the famous stone should be returned to India or not?

The Historian/Author William Dalrymple who is working on his upcoming non-fiction history book Kohinoor said, “While I was working on my previous book on Shah Shujah Durrani’s (ruler of the Durrani empire in present day Afghanistan from 1803-1809) life, I got some Persian manuscripts from Kabul. I came across this chapter between the time Nadir Shah (Shah of Persia) left India and when the diamond came back to India with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. So this was information on the Kohinoor that people did not know about, through Afghan Sources”.

 

Kohinoor, Koh-i-noor, Kohinoor diamond, William Dalrymple, Kohinoor William Dalrymple, Kohinoor Dalrymple, Kohinoor history, Ranjit Singh, Shah Shujah Durrani, Kohinoor Ranjit Singh, Kohinoor Shah Shujah Durrani, Kohinoor Nader Shah
Shah Shujah Durrani (left) and Maharaja Ranjit Singh (right) Source: Wikimedia Commons

While doing his research on Kohinoor to understand its complex history, he found manuscripts from Afghanistan and further explained “The Indian case rests on the claim that the British took away the diamond by force. I think there is no doubt about that. It is complete nonsense that, it was gifted by Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Sikhs. Maharaja Ranjit Singh kept it with him his whole life. It was during the regency of his son Duleep Singh, that the diamond was taken away. There is not much to dispute about that. It was part of the peace treaty of the British and was handed over in the process of the defeat of the Sikhs as one of the spoils going to the victor.”

Related articleIndia says British Queen should keep its Koh-i-Noor

“However, what complicates this is that the diamond did not come peacefully to Ranjit Singh either. Indians claim that Shah Shujah gave the diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. But Shah Shujah’s autobiography clearly mentions that his son was tortured by Maharaja Ranjit Singh before he took away the diamond. So if the Indian case rests on the claim that the British took it by force, so did the Indians.”

By the mid-19th century when it reached the hands of British, it has already been possessed by many leaders and kings, all of which were not ‘Indian’. “By the time the diamond passed from the Afghans to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the diamond had been with the Afghans of the Durrani Empire for two to three generations. It kept getting transferred peaceably through each generation and finally came into the possession of Shah Shujah. Shah Shujah in his autobiography mentions that his son was tortured and that he was starved for days by Ranjit Singh in order to get the diamond,” explained Dalrymple.

According to the Dalrymple’s perspective, besides India there are other countries also who can lay claims on Diamond like Afghanistan and Iran. During the time when it passed through the hands of many rulers, the national boundaries were not well defined thus, it is difficult to decide to which country it belongs to. Pakistan and parts of Afghanistan were parts of India. When Nadir Shah attacked India and took the possession of Kohinoor, Kabul and Kandahar were being ruled from Delhi. Right now, there are three lawsuits in Pakistan, seeking claims on Kohinoor.

 

Nader Shah during the sacking of Delhi in the aftermath of his victory at the Battle of Karnal, 1739

It is true that the colourless diamond originated in Golconda Mines of India, later Nadir shah passed it to Persians long before British looted Sikhs. “The great looting of the Mughals was not by the British. By the times the British are powerful, the Mughals have already lost everything to the Persians. While the British did loot India, particularly Bengal, the big looting was done by Nadir Shah,” he further said.

“It in only because of the way the British wrote history that people have remembered the Kohinoor while everything else is forgotten. Other objects of loot like the Darya Noor (which is a sister diamond of Kohinoor) and parts of the Peacock throne are in Iran and nobody speaks about it.”

There is no doubt, the Antique rock has a long and complicating history and it is difficult to resolve to which country it belongs to. And Historian Dalrymple explained the reason how it has long lived throughout the history and still remembered.

“It in only because of the way the British wrote history that people have remembered the Kohinoor while everything else is forgotten. Other objects of loot like the Darya Noor (which is a sister diamond of Kohinoor) and parts of the Peacock throne are in Iran and nobody speaks about it.”

Speaking of the claims made by Indians that it should be brought back to India, he further added “It will be a matter of national pride, but it will open up a large number of grievances. Should the Dravidians now put a lawsuit against the Aryans, or should the Shudras start suing the Brahmans? The Kohinoor is a symbol of how complex and intractable history is. History is full of horror stories.”

“My personal view of all this is that history is far too complicated and entangled to think that there is anything to be gained by asking for retribution. Where does one stop? Should Britain seek retribution from Norway and Sweden for the Viking raids? Equally, should the Sri Lankan government send a bill to India for the Chola raids of Anuradhapura? This is not a healthy way of conducting international relations. One should be educated in history in the least biased way possible.” he said.

Akanksha is an intern at NewsGram and pursuing Journalism and Mass Communication in New Delhi. Twitter:@Akanksha4117

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  • Jasjeet Singh

    William Dalrymple needs to fix his story. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had a VAKIL (attorney) Mr Sohan Lal Suri who used to write daily diary of his Darbar namely Umdat-Ut-tawarikh. The real story as per Umdat-Ut-tawarikh is as follows:

    Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk was imprisoned by Atta Mohammad Khan, Governor of Kashmir under Maharaja’s Kingdom. He was he who tortured Shah and his family. Shah’s wife Wafa Begum contacted Maharajah Ranjit Singh and plead for his release and she promised to offer Koh-i-noor in return. Maharaja after his findings ordered on 6th day of Zil Hajj Sambat 1869 (1812AD) to free Shah and he was brought to Lahore and offered Haveli known as Mubarak and Rs 1000 cash for an entertainment. Shah family lived there with comfort.

    On the day of Holi festival of same year, Deewan Bhawani Dass, Munshi Karam Chand and Bhai Ram Singh met Shah’s agents Habibulla Khan and Haifz-Ruh-Ullah to close the business of Koh-i-noor. After long discussions the price of diamond was set as Rs 3 lakh advance and Jagir (territory) yielding income of Rs 50,000 per annum. Shah had to handover Koh-i-noor in 50 days.

    On 29th Jamadi-ul-Awwal (May 30, 1813)- Fiqir Aziz-ud-din, Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, Jamadar Khushal Singh went to Shah and told him expiry of 50 days. The Shah said, “ let Maharaja come and have it”. Maharaja with certain Chieftains and 1000 foot soldiers entered Mubarek Haveli, located in the Mochi Darwaz. Shah with folded hands offered Diamond and had an agreement written down purporting to non-interference with him and his descendants in future in regards to Jagir. Maharaja was very happy at the sight and presented Shah 20 rolls of Shawls, brocade, Gulabadn and the like. Shah also presented two Doshalas and One turban to Maharaja. The wisest Judges declared the weight of gem to be equal to 42 Mashas.

    The Shah had very cordial relationship with Maharajah. He was deposed by his brother in 1809 and he lived in Punjab till 1837. He regained his Kingdom with the help Sikhs especially Gen Hari Singh Nalwa in 1839. Hari Singh Nalwa was killed in this expedition.

    The koh-i-noor was purchased by Maharajah and it was not snatched, stolen, surrendered or gifted by Shah.

  • Pritam Go Green

    Its not what we Indians need to worry out. Britian won’t give it to us that easy.

    • Pashchiema Bhatia

      In fact, its next to impossible.. Its way difficult to prove that it belongs to India as it has a complicated history

  • Jasjeet Singh

    William Dalrymple needs to fix his story. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had a VAKIL (attorney) Mr Sohan Lal Suri who used to write daily diary of his Darbar namely Umdat-Ut-tawarikh. The real story as per Umdat-Ut-tawarikh is as follows:

    Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk was imprisoned by Atta Mohammad Khan, Governor of Kashmir under Maharaja’s Kingdom. He was he who tortured Shah and his family. Shah’s wife Wafa Begum contacted Maharajah Ranjit Singh and plead for his release and she promised to offer Koh-i-noor in return. Maharaja after his findings ordered on 6th day of Zil Hajj Sambat 1869 (1812AD) to free Shah and he was brought to Lahore and offered Haveli known as Mubarak and Rs 1000 cash for an entertainment. Shah family lived there with comfort.

    On the day of Holi festival of same year, Deewan Bhawani Dass, Munshi Karam Chand and Bhai Ram Singh met Shah’s agents Habibulla Khan and Haifz-Ruh-Ullah to close the business of Koh-i-noor. After long discussions the price of diamond was set as Rs 3 lakh advance and Jagir (territory) yielding income of Rs 50,000 per annum. Shah had to handover Koh-i-noor in 50 days.

    On 29th Jamadi-ul-Awwal (May 30, 1813)- Fiqir Aziz-ud-din, Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, Jamadar Khushal Singh went to Shah and told him expiry of 50 days. The Shah said, “ let Maharaja come and have it”. Maharaja with certain Chieftains and 1000 foot soldiers entered Mubarek Haveli, located in the Mochi Darwaz. Shah with folded hands offered Diamond and had an agreement written down purporting to non-interference with him and his descendants in future in regards to Jagir. Maharaja was very happy at the sight and presented Shah 20 rolls of Shawls, brocade, Gulabadn and the like. Shah also presented two Doshalas and One turban to Maharaja. The wisest Judges declared the weight of gem to be equal to 42 Mashas.

    The Shah had very cordial relationship with Maharajah. He was deposed by his brother in 1809 and he lived in Punjab till 1837. He regained his Kingdom with the help Sikhs especially Gen Hari Singh Nalwa in 1839. Hari Singh Nalwa was killed in this expedition.

    The koh-i-noor was purchased by Maharajah and it was not snatched, stolen, surrendered or gifted by Shah.

  • Pritam Go Green

    Its not what we Indians need to worry out. Britian won’t give it to us that easy.

    • Pashchiema Bhatia

      In fact, its next to impossible.. Its way difficult to prove that it belongs to India as it has a complicated history

Next Story

Diesel Exhaust Converted Into Ink by Indian Innovators To Battle Air Pollution

Supervised by young engineers, workers at the start-up company Chakr Innovation in New Delhi cut and weld sheets of metal to make devices that will capture black plumes of smoke from diesel generators and convert it into ink.

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representational image. VOA

Supervised by young engineers, workers at the start-up company Chakr Innovation in New Delhi cut and weld sheets of metal to make devices that will capture black plumes of smoke from diesel generators and convert it into ink.

In a cabin, young engineers pore over drawings and hunch over computers as they explore more applications of the technology that they hope will aid progress in cleaning up the Indian capital’s toxic air – among the world’s dirtiest.

While the millions of cars that ply Delhi’s streets are usually blamed for the city’s deadly air pollution, another big culprit is the massive diesel generators used by industries and buildings to light up homes and offices during outages when power from the grid switches off – a frequent occurrence in summer. Installed in backyards and basements, they stay away from the public eye.

“Although vehicular emissions are the show stoppers, they are the ones which get the media attention, the silent polluters are the diesel generators,” says Arpit Dhupar, one of the three engineers who co-founded the start up.

The idea that this polluting smoke needs attention struck Dhupar three years ago as he sipped a glass of sugarcane juice at a roadside vendor and saw a wall blackened with the fumes of a diesel generator he was using.

It jolted him into joining with two others who co-founded the start-up to find a solution. Dhupar had experienced first hand the deadly impact of this pollution as he developed respiratory problems growing up in Delhi.

An Indian girls holds a banner during a protest against air pollution in New Delhi, India, Nov. 6, 2016.
An Indian girls holds a banner during a protest against air pollution in New Delhi, India, Nov. 6, 2016.

A new business

As the city’s dirty air becomes a serious health hazard for many citizens, it has turned into both a calling and a business opportunity for entrepreneurs looking at ways to improve air quality.

According to estimates, vehicles contribute 22 percent of the deadly PM 2.5 emissions in Delhi, while the share of diesel generators is about 15 percent. These emissions settle deep into the lungs, causing a host of respiratory problems.

After over two years of research and development, Chakr has begun selling devices to tap the diesel exhaust. They have been installed in 50 places, include public sector and private companies.

The technology involves cooling the exhaust in a “heat exchanger” where the tiny soot particles come together. These are then funneled into another chamber that captures 70 to 90 percent of the particulate matter. The carbon is isolated and converted into ink.

Among their first clients was one of the city’s top law firms, Jyoti Sagar Associates, which is housed in a building in Delhi’s business hub Gurgaon.

Making a contribution to minimizing the carbon footprint is a subject that is close to Sagar’s heart – his 32-year-old daughter has long suffered from the harmful effects of Delhi’s toxic air.

Motorists drive surrounded by smog, in New Delhi, India, Nov. 8, 2017.
Motorists drive surrounded by smog, in New Delhi, India, Nov. 8, 2017.

“This appealed to us straightaway, the technology is very impactful but is beautifully simple,” says Sagar. Since it could be retrofitted, it did not disrupt the day-to-day activities at the buzzing office. “Let’s be responsible. Let’s at least not leave behind a larger footprint of carbon. And if we can afford to control it, why not, it’s good for all,” he says.

At Chakr Innovation, cups, diaries and paper bags printed with the ink made from the exhaust serve as constant reminders of the amount of carbon emissions that would have escaped into the atmosphere.

There has been a lot of focus on improving Delhi’s air by reducing vehicular pollution and making more stringent norms for manufacturers, but the same has not happened for diesel generators. Although there are efforts to penalize businesses that dirty the atmosphere, this often prompts them to find ways to get around the norms.

Also Read: Exposure to Traffic-Related Pollution Poses Threat of Asthma in Kids

Tushar Mathur who joined the start up after working for ten years in the corporate sector feels converting smoke into ink is a viable solution. “Here is a technology which is completely sustainable, a win-win between businesses and environment,” says Mathur. (VOA)