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HPV Vaccination May Bring An End To Cervical Cancer In India by 2070

Combining high uptake of the HPV vaccine and cervical screening could eliminate cervical cancer as a public health hazard in 149 out of 181 countries by 2100 and up to 13 million cases of cervical cancer by 2050.

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Cervical cancer is the fourth-most common cancer among women, with an estimated 570,000 new cases diagnosed worldwide in 2018, of which around 85 per cent occur in less developed nations. Pixabay

Human papillomavirus (HPV) screening and vaccination must be taken up on a war footing in countries like India to prevent 15 million cervical cancer deaths among women by 2050, a Lancet research said.

Causing the second-highest number of deaths among Indian women among cancer variants, cervical cancer, in a majority of cases, is caused by HPV, a group of more than 150 viruses.

The efforts might even result in cervical cancer being eliminated as a public health hazard in India by 2070-79, according to the study, published in The Lancet Oncology journal.

Combining high uptake of the HPV vaccine and cervical screening could eliminate cervical cancer as a public health hazard in 149 out of 181 countries by 2100 and up to 13 million cases of cervical cancer by 2050.

Cancer
“Awareness about cervical cancer is extremely poor among common people; that makes containing the disease a challenge,” Anjila Aneja, Director at Fortis La Femme, New Delhi, told IANS. Pixabay

If the high coverage of HPV vaccination and cervical screening cannot be achieved globally, over 44 million women could be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the next 50 years with two-thirds of these cases and an additional estimated 15 million deaths, would occur in countries with low and medium levels of development.

“More than two thirds of cases prevented would be in countries with low and medium levels of human development like India, Nigeria, and Malawi, where there has so far been limited access to HPV vaccination or cervical screening,” said lead author Professor Karen Canfell from the Cancer Council New South Wales in Australia.

However, large disparities exist in cervical screening and HPV vaccination coverage among countries.

“Awareness about cervical cancer is extremely poor among common people; that makes containing the disease a challenge,” Anjila Aneja, Director at Fortis La Femme, New Delhi, told IANS.

“While societal barriers prevent women from seeking medical help in advance, women are forced to come out at a later stage when the disease has reached an advanced stage,” she said.

cancer
Screening and broad-spectrum HPV vaccines could potentially prevent up to 84-90 per cent of cervical cancers, the study said. Pixabay

However, Canfell says that despite the enormity of the problem, their findings suggest that “global elimination is within reach with tools that are already available, provided that both high coverage of HPV vaccination and cervical screening can be achieved.

Cervical cancer is the fourth-most common cancer among women, with an estimated 570,000 new cases diagnosed worldwide in 2018, of which around 85 per cent occur in less developed nations.

Screening and broad-spectrum HPV vaccines could potentially prevent up to 84-90 per cent of cervical cancers, the study said.

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“Diagnostic tests such as the pap smear are effective in identifying cancerous tendencies.

“However, these tests are available with a limited number of providers and largely within the cities. This makes screening sporadic and leaves out women who live in rural areas,” Aneja added. (IANS)

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Indian Education Institutions Face Cyber Security Challenge

Indian Education Institutions receive cyber threats from hackers

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Cyber crimes
Indian education institutions are hit hard by cyber crimes. Pixabay

Education domain is one of the most “at-risk” industries in India, with the sector accounting for more than 30 per cent of cyber threats targeting enterprises in the country between July and September 2019, a new report from Seqrite, the enterprise arm of IT security firm Quick Heal Technologies, said on Wednesday.

Other industries that remained at high risk included manufacturing, BFSI (banking, financial services and insurance), media and entertainment and professional services — underlining that no sector remained immune from the growing cybersecurity challenge in the country.

Between July and September 2019, Seqrite detected and stopped more than 38 million cyber threats, including ransomware, malware, virus/worm infectors, cryptojacking and exploit-based attacks.

This marks an increase of four million and 10 million over the number of threats detected in Q2 2019 and Q1 2019, respectively.

It also marked a massive year-on-year increase of 12 million over the corresponding numbers in Q2 2018, which saw 26 million threats stopped by Seqrite.

“In the face of the growing cybersecurity challenge highlighted in the report, it is important that Indian organisations across industries understand and acknowledge the heightened severity and sophistication of the threat landscape,” said Sanjay Katkar, Joint Managing Director and Chief Technology Officer, Quick Heal Technologies.

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No sector remains immune from the growing cyber security challenge in the country. Pixabay

“Deploying robust, multi-layered, and tech-backed security solutions is no longer a luxury, but a critical necessity for enterprises across the country,” Katkar added.

The emergence of sophisticated ransomware such as “LockerGoga” marked a shift from a single-screen approach to leveraging ransomware as a sophisticated payload distribution platform.

Unsecured Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) was also targeted by ransomware such as “TFlower” to compromise the security of corporate enterprises and government agencies at scale.

Constantly evolving malware continued to use complex obfuscation techniques and attack methodologies to escape detection by conventional, signature-based cybersecurity approach.

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During the latest monitoring period, Trojans saw a huge surge in their adoption and were the preferred attack method deployed against Indian enterprises, with such intrusions accounting for 27 per cent of the total threats.

Other threats such as infectors (24 per cent), worms (17 per cent), PUAs (13 per cent), and cryptojacking (11 per cent) also remained popular amongst cybercriminals. (IANS)