Rio de Janeiro: Some 500 artefacts made from stone and shells that experts consider vestiges of a human presence in Brazil dating back about 4,000 years were found during excavation for an expansion of the Rio de Janeiro subway.
The artefacts were found at an archaeological site near the port and downtown area, the Rio de Janeiro state government said.
Digs in the area began in 2013 as part of the subway expansion project, which the city pledged to complete when it was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games.
The site, which was preserved to allow a team of archaeologists hired by the construction company to do its work, has yielded 50 stone artefacts and about 400 seashell instruments.
The artefacts are typical of those made by the primitive nomadic groups that moved across the Rio region long before the first indigenous peoples settled in the area, state officials said.
“These are pieces between 3,000 and 4,000 years old from the period when paleo-Indians who roamed the territory around the Guanabara Bay were hunters, fishermen, gatherers and nomads, and had not organised into tribes yet,” the government said in a statement.
Experts have identified spearheads and tools, such as primitive hammers, axes and scrapers, used to take meat off animal hides and to work stones.
“The prehistoric items will help us to understand an important part of the process of primitive population in Rio de Janeiro,” said archaeologist Claudio Prada de Mello, coordinator of the team that retrieved the artefacts.
“To find something like this in downtown Rio de Janeiro, an area that has undergone several cycles of settlement and transformation, is fantastic,” the archaeologist said.
With its wooden walls and posters on protecting forests and fauna, Brazil’s pavilion at the U.N. climate talks in Poland offers no hint of the angst at home and abroad over mixed messages on global warming from its president-elect.
But campaign promises made by Jair Bolsonaro that could weaken protection for the Amazon rainforest are a hot topic of conversation among visitors, said Caio Henrique Scarmocin, one of three hosts on the stand.
At the conference, whose outcome will be key to implementing the landmark 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, scientists and environmental activists said they were laying the groundwork should calls for Bolsonaro to protect Brazil’s forests fail.
Campaign statements from Bolsonaro, who takes power in January, suggested indigenous lands could be opened up to economic exploitation, including agribusiness and mining, and environmental fines eased.
The ability of Ibama, Brazil’s environmental protection agency, to fine those who break environmental laws is one of the government’s best defenses against the destruction of forests, stoking fears of a deforestation spike under the new government.
Bolsonaro, who campaigned on a far-right platform, also pushed the Brazilian government to withdraw its offer to host next year’s U.N. climate conference.
“He has a hostile approach over environmental issues,” said Paulo Barreto, a researcher with Imazon, a Brazilian institute monitoring deforestation in the Amazon.
Brazil is home to about 60 percent of the Amazon rainforest, considered by many as nature’s best weapon against global warming, because trees absorb and store carbon from the air.
Alfredo Sirkis, executive secretary of the Brazilian Forum on Climate Change, said he thought dialogue with the incoming government was still possible.
But if environmental roll-backs proceed, there was a “contingency plan,” he told journalists.
A coalition would assemble regional governments committed to respecting Brazil’s emissions reduction goals set under the Paris pact, said Sirkis.
Governors in as many as seven Brazilian states, including Amazonas, Pernambuco, the Federal District, Espirito Santo, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul, had already expressed interest in joining, he said.
“This is for starters,” said the former congressman.
A spokesman for the presidency of Brazil at the climate talks declined to comment.
U.S. shows the way
The plan has similarities with “We Are Still In,” a U.S. group of more than 3,500 mayors, governors and business leaders who have promised they will not retreat from the Paris deal.
Last year, U.S. President Donald Trump gave notice the United States would leave the accord — although it cannot formally withdraw until 2020 — arguing it was bad for the economy.
Mauricio Voivodic, executive director of WWF-Brazil, said his group had been in touch with the U.S. campaign through WWF-US, which is part of the “We Are Still In” secretariat.
The American coalition has its own pavilion at the U.N. climate talks.
“We are learning from ‘We Are Still In’ the importance of sub-national (governments) and companies enhancing commitments for the implementation of the Paris Agreement,” Voivodic said.
But WWF-Brazil is not yet trying to emulate the model because it wants to prioritize dialogue already under way with the transition government, he added.
“It could be an option, but we are not going in the direction of starting planning this,” said Voivodic.
Brazil’s future environment minister told Reuters on Monday his “inclination” was not to leave the Paris Agreement, after Bolsonaro said on the campaign trail he might quit the deal, under which countries set their own targets to cut emissions.
Marcio Astrini, public policy coordinator for Greenpeace Brazil, said he also looked to the United States as a vague blueprint to build a similar “resistance movement.”
A Brazilian version would draw on linkages between about 150 civil society groups who worked closely over the last year to oppose Bolsonaro’s campaign, he said.