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Human presence dating back 4,000 years found in Rio de Janeiro

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Rio de Janeiro: Some 500 artefacts made from stone and shells that experts consider vestiges of a human presence in Brazil dating back about 4,000 years were found during excavation for an expansion of the Rio de Janeiro subway.

The artefacts were found at an archaeological site near the port and downtown area, the Rio de Janeiro state government said.

Digs in the area began in 2013 as part of the subway expansion project, which the city pledged to complete when it was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games.

The site, which was preserved to allow a team of archaeologists hired by the construction company to do its work, has yielded 50 stone artefacts and about 400 seashell instruments.

The artefacts are typical of those made by the primitive nomadic groups that moved across the Rio region long before the first indigenous peoples settled in the area, state officials said.

“These are pieces between 3,000 and 4,000 years old from the period when paleo-Indians who roamed the territory around the Guanabara Bay were hunters, fishermen, gatherers and nomads, and had not organised into tribes yet,” the government said in a statement.

Experts have identified spearheads and tools, such as primitive hammers, axes and scrapers, used to take meat off animal hides and to work stones.

“The prehistoric items will help us to understand an important part of the process of primitive population in Rio de Janeiro,” said archaeologist Claudio Prada de Mello, coordinator of the team that retrieved the artefacts.

“To find something like this in downtown Rio de Janeiro, an area that has undergone several cycles of settlement and transformation, is fantastic,” the archaeologist said.

(IANS)

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Study: Drinking and Smoking can cause Problems to the Dental Fillings

Failure of Dental fillings in smokers and alcohol drinkers.

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Smoking causes failure of Dental fillings
Smoking causes failure of Dental fillings. Pixabay
  • Indulging in smoking or drinking alcohol may not only damage your teeth but also lead to increased incidences of failure in dental fillings, warned researchers.

The findings, led by researchers from the University of Pittsburgh, showed that within two years of the dental procedure, Dental fillings failed more often in patients who drank alcohol, while the overall filling failure rate was higher in men who smoked.

Furthermore, people with a difference in the gene for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2) — an enzyme found in teeth — were at increased risk of Dental filling failure.

This could be because MMP2 might be able to degrade the bond between the filling and the tooth surface, potentially leading to failure, the researchers said.

The results, published in the journal Frontiers in Medicine, suggest that genetic analysis might help dentists to personalize treatments for their patients, which could lead to improved outcomes.

“A better understanding of individual susceptibility to dental disease and variation in treatment outcomes will allow the dental field to move forward,” said Alexandre Vieira, a researcher from the varsity.

“In the future, genetic information may be used to personalize dental treatments and enhance treatment outcomes,” Vieira added.

For the study, the team from America and Brazil analyzed dental records of 807 patients.
Fillings can fail for a variety of reasons, including re-emergence of the initial tooth decay or the filling becoming detached.

The researchers also examined if newer composite resin Dental fillings are as durable as traditional amalgam fillings, which have been in use for more than 150 years but which contain mercury, a toxic metal.

The researchers found that overall, there were no major differences between patients receiving amalgam or composite Dental fillings in terms of filling failure rates. (IANS)

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Festival of India in Brazil kicks off with Carnatic Music and Gandhi Exhibition

The exhibition on the life of Mahatma Gandhi was inaugurated by Ambassador of India in Brazil Sunil Lal

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Festival of India
Carnatic Musical. Wikimedia

September 2, 2017: In the opening of the 10-day Festival of India,  an exhibition on the life of Mahatma Gandhi and an enthralling performance of Carnatic music by renowned Indian musicians in Brasilia, that was attended by senior Brazilian government officials, ambassadors, media, culture lovers and friends of India.

The event, on August 31, was held at the University of Brasilia (UnB).

Also Read: Navratri is a Festival which can be Celebrated by all, Irrespective of their Caste or Religion

The Festival of India is being organised in Brasilia, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro by the Indian Ministry of Culture and the Embassy of India in Brazil to celebrate the completion of 70 years of India’s independence, an Indian Embassy press release said.

The exhibition on the life of Mahatma Gandhi was inaugurated by Ambassador of India in Brazil Sunil Lal. The bilingual exhibition in English and Portuguese familiarized the Brazilian visitors with fascinating aspects of the Mahatma’s life and his decisive role in India’s independence. This was followed by the soulful performance of Indian Carnatic music by Anuroop Sugathan on the violin, Govindarajan and Palakal who were the vocalists and Viswanathan on the Mridangam.

In an evening marked by patriotic fervour and invocation of the divine, the Brazilian audience were treated to renditions of Vande Mataram and devotional and classical Carnatic numbers, reaching the crescendo with a rendition of the Indian National Anthem.

The group of musicians are to perform in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

The Brazilian friends of India would be treated to another stellar evening of a Kathak performance by an 11-member group led by Nandini Singh in Brasilia on Friday. This would be followed by Kathak performances in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The widely appreciated exhibition on Mahatma Gandhi would also be on display in São Paulo.

The final leg of the festival would celebrate Indian literature with renowned Indian poets Siva Reddy Kolli, Shauq Mohammed Shafi Lone and Monalisa Jena sharing gems of Indian literature in Telugu, Kashmiri and Odia languages, with their translations, to introduce the Brazilian audience to the fascinating world of Indian poetry, in all the three cities. (IANS)

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Mobile Applications Ensure Public Safety in Rio De Janerio

Twin mobile applications call for public safety cautioning users about terror stricken areas

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Mobile Applications
Mobile applications ensuring public safety. VOA
  • ‘Onde tem tiroteio RJ’ aims to track gunfire and fosters public safety
  • The two security apps Onde tem tiroteio RJ together “Fogo Cruzado,” or Cross Fire with battles guns and bullets in Rio de Janeiro
  • Apps help common people to avoid violence inflicted areas

July 16, 2017:  Onde tem tiroteio RJ and Frogo Cruzado are mobile applications, created by a group of volunteers aims to show the distraught areas of Rio de Janeiro, saving many innocent lives from stray bullets. Street violence and mob shooting have become a major threat to many big cities and most significantly in Brazil’s Rio de Janeiro. These mobile applications inform its users where a shooting has occurred and advise to stay away from it. The app Onde tem tiroteio RJ is also responsible for doing the same via social media like Instagram, Facebook and others, as reported by BBG Direct.

Enrique Coelho Caamano, the creator of Onde Tem Tiroteio – “Where are the Firefights” is more concerned with the public lives, the lives of the common mass often entangled in massive gunfire. According to the sources, the app has now approx 3 million users, which is almost half the population of the area.

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Our job here is not to denounce anyone, we do not have a direct focus on the police or on the drug gangs,” Henrique Coelho Caamaño, a volunteer of the Onde Tem Tiroteio app, said this week. “Our focus is really to get people out of the way of stray bullets.” The rampaged areas can now be avoided by the common people all thanks to Onde Tem Tiroteio app.

Mobile Applications
The apps keep people updated about the areas to avoid. Pixabay.
  • Fogo Cruzado lets the users know about the time, date and number of fatalities
  • Mobile applications break stereotypes by emphasizing that human lives matter.

Rio de Janeiro one step ahead in public safety and development.

Fogo Cruzado: The “Fogo Cruzado,” or Cross Fire, an application created by Amnesty International and local researcher, is similar to Onde Tem Tiroteio RJ which also keeps the civilians informed about the bullet strained area. The app is also responsible for protecting the safety of the people frequently falling prey to stray bullets. Both the applications are instrumental in maintaining the security of the civilians long used to random gunfire.

BBC reports that around 42,000 people were shot dead in 2012, the “highest” in the history of 35 years. More than half of the victims are the young population with the northern state lagoas being the most violent. These apps come as saviors amidst the sound of firefights ravaging the city on a routined basis. There has been a steady growth of violent crimes by 11% this year as confirmed by VOA News. More than 23,000 people have killed in the first five months of 2017. The applications send reports based on the informations given by eyewitnesses, media and police accounts.

– prepared by Puja Sinha of NewsGram. Twitter @pujas1994