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Increase green cover to mitigate urban heat : NASA

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By NewsGram Staff Writer

Washington:  Providing a solution to the recent problem of rising urban heat, a recently conducted study by NASA explained how increasing the green cover can help cities to a great extent.

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Using multiple satellites’ observations, researchers found that areas in the US covered in part by concrete surfaces had a summer temperature 1.9 degrees Celsius higher than surrounding rural areas.

In winter, the temperature difference was 1.5 degrees Celsius higher in urban areas.

At the human level, a rise of one degrees Celsius can raise energy demands for air conditioning in the summer from five to 20 percent.

“This has nothing to do with greenhouse gas emissions. It is in addition to the greenhouse gas effect. This is the land use component only,” said Lahouari Bounoua, research scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland.

The urban heat island effect occurs primarily during the day when urban impervious surfaces absorb more solar radiation than the surrounding vegetated areas, resulting in a few degrees temperature difference.

The urban area has also lost the trees and vegetation that naturally cool the air.

“Anywhere in the US, small cities generate less heat than mega-cities,” Bounoua said.

The reason is the effect vegetation has on keeping a lid on rising temperatures.

“The amount and type of vegetation plays a big role in how much the urbanisation changes the temperature,” added research scientist and co-author Kurtis Thome.

As a by-product of photosynthesis, leaves release water back into the atmosphere in a process called evapotranspiration, which cools the local surface temperature the same way that sweat evaporating off a person’s skin cools them off.

Trees with broad leaves have more pores to exchange water than trees with needles, and so have more of a cooling effect.

“So even though 0.3 degrees Celcius may seem like a small difference, it still may have impact on energy use,” Bounoua said, especially when urban heat island effects are exacerbated by global temperature rises due to climate change.

Understanding the tradeoffs between urban surfaces and vegetation may help city planners in the future mitigate some of the heating effects, the authors noted in a paper that appeared in the journal Environmental Research Letters.

(With inputs from IANS)

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Experts Claim, Climate Change Can Affect Food, Water Security

Lauding IIT-Mandi for hosting the workshop, Rajeevan said the Himalayas were one of the world's sensitive hotspots to climate change along with the Artic region.

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Ramesh P. Singh, workshop Coordinator and visiting faculty at IIT-Mandi, said: "We have to understand climate change and its impact as it is very important for the future generations." Pixabay

Climate change can affect the food, water and energy security of a region, Ministry of Earth Sciences Secretary M. Rajeevan said here on Friday.

“Climate is changing and global warming is happening due to the release of greenhouse gases. In many parts of the world, including India, the effects of climate change are being seen especially in mountain regions like Mandi,” he said.

He was speaking at the Indian Institute of Technology-Mandi that hosted an International Workshop on Climate Change and Extreme Events in the Indian Himalayan Region.

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In many parts of the world, including India, the effects of climate change are being seen especially in mountain regions like Mandi,” he said. Pixabay

The workshop was aimed at understanding the effects of climate change, melting of glaciers, increased frequency of extreme events, atmospheric pollution and pollution due to the burning of crop residue in the Himalayan region and applications of remote sensing.

Lauding IIT-Mandi for hosting the workshop, Rajeevan said the Himalayas were one of the world’s sensitive hotspots to climate change along with the Artic region.

“The Himalayan region is experiencing increasing variability in weather in the last many years. This could lead to further snow accumulation over this region and more research is needed to understand this phenomenon. By studying data, there is also evidence that the number of extreme warm days and nights has increased in this Himalayan region, which are clear effects of global warming.”

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The workshop was aimed at understanding the effects of climate change, melting of glaciers, increased frequency of extreme events, atmospheric pollution and pollution due to the burning of crop residue in the Himalayan region and applications of remote sensing. Pixabay

In his presidential address, IIT-Mandi Director Timothy A. Gonsalves said: “We have 15 professors from six different disciplines in IIT-Mandi who are working on climate change. This workshop saw the participation of faculty from various disciplines and is an example of the inter-disciplinary and collaborative environment on campus.”

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Ramesh P. Singh, workshop Coordinator and visiting faculty at IIT-Mandi, said: “We have to understand climate change and its impact as it is very important for the future generations.”

The workshop has participation from all over India, besides Europe, and the US with over 90 speakers from across India. (IANS)