Friday January 19, 2018

India is Ground Zero for TB: Number of cases much higher than reported

The study published in Lancet found that in 2014, the private sector treated double the cases handled by government-run hospitals depicting the failing battle against TB

0
//
204
TB Patient. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons.
Republish
Reprint

INDIA, September 5, 2016: : Ground zero of the global battle against one of humankind’s deadliest diseases, India could have between two and three times more Tuberculosis(TB) cases than currently assumed, said a recent paper released in ‘Lancet’, a medical journal.

The study found that in 2014, the private sector treated between 1.9 million and 5.34 million cases — or about double the cases handled by government-run hospitals.

Before this study, India was believed to have about 2.2 million TB cases, a quarter of the global TB burden, thus far estimated at about 6.3 million.

However, the private sector both helps and hinders TB treatment, the study implies.

Although standardised Tuberculosis treatment in India is delivered by the public sector, early diagnosis and treatment are hampered by the presence of a vast and unregulated private health-care sector, said the study, whose eight authors come from a variety of institutions, including London’s Imperial College, the Indian government, the World Health Organisation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which funded the study.

“Poor diagnostic practices in this sector prolong Tuberculosis transmission by delaying diagnosis, whereas a general lack of counselling and support of treatment adherence hampers successful, relapse-free cure,” said the study. “Moreover, most cases treated in the private sector are never notified to public health authorities.”

Tuberculosis Diagram. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons.
Tuberculosis Diagram.
Image Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Analysing sales patterns of 189 drugs containing rifampicin — a key anti-TB formulation — over 2013 and 2014, the researchers estimated how many were sold to the private sector. In 2014, the WHO estimated that 800,000 TB patients escaped public-sector diagnosis, but these statistics were mostly compiled from expert opinion. So, the new study provides an empirical estimate that is independent of such opinion.

“This study illustrates the need to address the burden of Tuberculosis treated by the private sector and improve surveillance,” the researchers wrote, acknowledging the paper’s limitations, including the failure to capture TB patients who do not approach a doctor, use the informal sector or are being treated for multiple-drug resistance.

“This study also raises an urgent need to revise current estimates of Tuberculosis burden, informed by more systematic evidence relating to Tuberculosis management in the private sector,” the researchers wrote.

Although the incidence of TB in India has been declining, drug resistance and its interaction with other diseases, such as HIV, have slowed progress.

Follow NewsGram on Facebook

Throughout history, TB has killed more humans than any conflict, disaster or disease known to mankind. In the 5th century, Greek philosopher Hippocrates advised doctors to stay away from TB patients, since there was no cure. In the 17th, it was called the great white plague of Europe, as it swept the continent, killing thousands over 200 years. In the 21st Century, it infects 10 million people every year, killing a fifth of those.

Follow NewsGram on Twitter

TB bacteria have in-built armour, acids that protect them against the body’s cellular defenders. Most people infected with it have latent tuberculosis, where the bacteria are walled off in clumps by the cells of the immune system. Sometimes, the containment fails, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. If a drug doesn’t kill the bacteria completely, it becomes immune to that drug and can eventually overwhelm the immune system. (IANS)

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2016 NewsGram

Next Story

India successfully test fires n-capable Agni-V ballistic missile

The missile was earlier tested successfully in 2012, 2013, 2015 and 2016.

0
//
4
Nirbhay
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) sources said the Nirbhay missile test was "successful".(Representative image) VOA
  • India successfully tests the Agni-V ballistic missile on Thursday
  • This was the fifth test that missile underwent
  • With this success India is now in ranks with US, UK, China and Russia

India on Thursday successfully test fired its indigenously developed intercontinental surface-to-surface nuclear-capable ballistic missile Agni-V — the most potent and with the longest range in the Agni series – that can reach targets as far as Beijing.

The test took place at the Abdul Kalam Island facility off the Odisha coast. Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman tweeted about its success, congratulating its makers DRDO, the armed forces and the defence industry.

You may also like : Ballistic missile Agni-IV test fired as part of user trial

India has many high tech and powerful missiles to its name. Wikimedia Commons
India has many high tech and powerful missiles to its name. Wikimedia Commons

She said the successful test of the 5,000-km-range missile that can carry a one-tonne warhead, was “a major boost to the defence capabilities of our country”.

“The Made in India canistered missile, having three stages of propulsion, was successfully test fired,” she tweeted.

Developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), the Agni-V is the most advanced version of the Agni series, part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme that started in the 1960s.

The missile was earlier tested successfully in 2012, 2013, 2015 and 2016.

This was the fifth test of the missile and likely to be its first user trial, though there was no official word on it.

India is developing new technologies everyday to strengthen its defence.
India is developing new technologies everyday to strengthen its defence.

Thursday’s test brings the missile closer to its induction in the tri-service Strategic Forces Command.

The missile has a much longer shelf life, with its container being made of special steel that absorbs the blast of the takeoff.

In the canisterised launch, a gas generator inside ejects the missile up to a height of about 30 metres. A motor is then ignited to fire the missile.

Also Read : Nikki Haley says North Korea Could Face Stronger Sanctions due to its 7th Missile test in 2017 .

With this missile, India joins the super-exclusive club of ICBM (missiles with a range of over 5,000-5,500 km) capable countries of the US, Russia, the UK, France and China. IANS