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India welcomes ‘historic’ Paris climate accord

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Paris: Amid cheers, hugs and tears of joy, delegates from 196 countries at the climate change conference here adopted late on Saturday the first universal pact committing them to curb global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and outline a roadmap to raise $100 billion annually towards a green fund for developing nations.

India immediately welcomed the pact, saying it was balanced and addressed most of its concerns.

The Paris Agreement — as the 32-page accord is called and reached after two weeks of hectic talks, a day’s extension and some sleepless night for negotiators — was declared adopted after French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius, also the chair of the conference struck the gavel.

“You’ve done it — reached an ambitious agreement, a binding agreement, a universal agreement. Never will I be able to express more gratitude to a conference. You can be proud that to stand before your children and grandchildren,” said French President Francois Hollande.

India’s Environment and Foreign Minister Prakash Javadekar felt the pact could have been more ambitious as the commitment from rich nations was “much below” what was expected of them, but felt the basic concept of common but differentiated responsibilities towards environment protecting was largely addressed.

“To achieve big things as there are languages and many issues, when 196 countries are putting their efforts together. One needs to be accommodative without changing the thrust of the agreement. We’ve done everything to maintain that thrust,” Javadekar said.

“Today is a historic day. What we have adopted today is not only an agreement but a new chapter of hope in the lives of seven billion people,” he said at the closing plenary, adding: “Today we reassure our future generation that we all will mitigate the challenge posed by climate change and give them a better future.”

Earlier in the day, President Hollande had called up Prime Minister Narendra Modi for his support.

Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement by the 21st Conference of Parties, under the aegis of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, it will be taken to the UN headquarters. Then on Earth Day, falling on April 22, 2016, it will be opened for the signatures of members for one year.

It will enter into force once 55 countries accounting for at least 55 percent of emissions ink it.

“For the first time, every country in the world has pledged to curb emissions, strengthen resilience and join in common cause to take common climate action. This is a resounding success for multilateralism,” said UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon.

The universal agreement’s main aim is to keep a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius and to drive efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

Then there is is a firm commitment for countries to engage in a process on mitigation opportunities and put added focus on adaptation opportunities, with rich members working towards a clear path to outline a road map on raising the climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion annually by 2020.

Immediately after the adoption of the Paris Agreement, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, two largest multilateral financing institutions threw their weight behind the accord and said they will help countries across the globe fight climate change.

Poor and emerging economies had been demanding that they get clean and green technology and funding from the rich nations to pursue their national interests without harming the environment further as they hold the industrialised world responsible for polluting the earth in the past.

Among the other decisions reached included a commitment that countries will submit updated climate plans — nationally determined contributions — every five years to steadily increase their long-term ambitions. India has already pledged to reduce the carbon intensity by 33-35 percent over 15 years.

India’s negotiating position, as a key member of a number of informal groupings on climate change, was evident at the conference was evident, as even US President Barack Obama called up Prime Minister Modi to ensure that Paris delivers a deal.

The country’s engagements were kicked off by Modi himself here, as global leaders this time converged at the beginning of the conference as opposed to attending the closing plenaries, as has been the practice in the past.

Apart from making a pitch for the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities at the conference talks, the Indian prime minister also launched a grand alliance of some 120-odd nations to harness solar energy better, besides committing $30 million for a proposed secretariat.(ians)

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All You Need To Know About India’s Strategic Chabahar Port

The Chabahar Port is a seaport in Chabahar, which is on the Gulf of Oman, near Iran-Pakistan border.

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Chabahar Port is of great international significance in terms of trade, especially for India. Wikimedia Commons
Chabahar Port is of great international significance in terms of trade, especially for India. Wikimedia Commons

By Ruchika Verma

  • The Chabahar Port is of great strategic importance for India
  • It is in Iran and is being built and operated by India
  • This port will increase India’s trade with Central Asia and Europe

The Chabahar Port is a seaport in Chabahar, which is on the Gulf of Oman, near Iran-Pakistan border. Chabahar is the trans-shipment and logistics hub for the Makran Coast and Baluchistan province of Iran.

Chabahar Port is built and operated by India. Wikimedia Commons
Chabahar Port is built and operated by India. Wikimedia Commons

The tension between India and Pakistan is nothing new. There are several instances where both the countries have tried to obstruct each other’s political or economic agendas. This obstruction, along with other strategic reasons, resulted in the India and Iran’s deal on the Chabahar Port, which is crucial because of several reasons.

Here are few things about it you may not have known before :

  • Under the Trilateral Transit and Transport Agreement of 2016, the Chabahar port is the gateway to the Transport Corridor between India, Iran and Afghanistan, which allows multi-modal goods’ and passengers’ transport.

Also Read: India and Iran sign agreement to develop Chabahar Port

  • The agreement also states that India will develop and operate two berths in the first phase of the port. The contract is for 10 years and extendable. This time period excludes the first two years as they will be used for construction.
Chabahar Port will make India's trade with Afghanistan easier. Wikimedia Commons
Chabahar Port will make India’s trade with Afghanistan easier. Wikimedia Commons
  • The Chabahar Port’s first phase, which was developed by India, and inaugurated by Iran on 4th December 2017, is of great strategic importance as it makes it easier for India to conduct trade with Central Asia and Europe.
  • Iran’s Chabahar port is also important for India’s trade because of Pakistan’s reluctance in allowing India to send goods to Iran and Afghanistan through its land territory.

Also Read: Gwadar Port: China Turning Pakistan Port Into Regional Giant 

  • The development of Chabahar Port will increase the momentum of the International North-South Transport Corridor whose signatories include India, Afghanistan and Russia. Iran is the key gateway in this project. It will improve India’s trade with Central Asia as well as Europe.
    The Chabahar Port has also reduced Afghanistan’s dependence on the transit road, which went through Karachi. Now, trade can be conducted via Chabahar Port too. Islamabad has accused India of trying to use this development as a means to destabilise Pakistan.

    The Chabar Port is the said to be the counter to the Gwadar Port. Wikimedia Commons
    The Chabar Port is the said to be the counter to the Gwadar Port. Wikimedia Commons
  • The Chabahar Port also acts as a counter to the barely 100 km away, Gwadar port in Pakistan, which is developed by China. However, Iran has defended that Chabahar is not a rival to Gwadar and Pakistan is invited to join in its development.
  • In October 2017, India sent its first shipment of wheat to through Chabahar to Afghanistan, in order to test the viability of the route.
  • India will also construct a 900-km Chabahar-Zahedan-hajigak railway line that will connect Port of Chabahar to Hajigak in Afghanistan. It will also connect Mashad in the north, providing access to Turkmenistan as well as northern Afghanistan.This project is worth $1.6 billion.

    India will supply $400 million worth of steel rails to Tehrain. Wikimedia Commons
    India will supply $400 million worth of steel rails to Tehran. Wikimedia Commons
  • It is being said that India will supply $400 million of steel rails to Tehran. There are also possibilities of setting up a fertilizer plant through a joint venture with the Iranian government.