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Indian Diaspora in Holland

The many flavours of Hinduism in Holland

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Image: Wikimedia Commons

By Shubhi Mangla

The Netherlands is divided into twelve coastal provinces. Two of its provinces namely North and South Holland together make Holland. The country Netherlands as a whole is still called Holland by some people. This is mainly because Holland emerged as the most powerful area of the Dutch Republic in the 17th century and came to be recognized worldwide.

The term ‘Holland’ is known to be derived from the word hol land meaning ‘hollow land’ as much of the land in Netherlands is below sea level. Holland is famous for its tulip fields, cycling paths and windmills. It is an attractive tourist destination, with three largest cities famous for their own reasons: Amsterdam known as the canalside capital is famous for its museums, Rotterdam is known for its architecture and design with a world-class port and The Hague, seat of the Netherlands government.

Today, more than 200,000 Hindus and NRIs have made Netherlands their home. Holland has the highest percentage of the Indian diaspora in the whole of the European continent.

Indian Arrival in Holland

When slavery was abolished in Suriname, the Dutch government recruited approximately 34000 Indian workers to work on the plantations for a period of 5 years on a contractual basis (indentured labor). When the contract ended, one-third of the Indian workers returned to India whereas around 23,000 chose to stay back.

The migration of Indians from Suriname to Holland started in the fifties and gained momentum when Suriname got its independence in 1975. The first migration was of Indian students from Suriname to Holland who came for studies. In the sixties, the economic, social and political conditions in Suriname were worsening which led to a mass migration of Surinamese in just a short span of time; most of them were Indo-Surinamese.

According to indiaempire.com, today, the Surinamese Indian community in the Netherlands, which calls itself the Surinamese Hindustanis, numbers approximately 200,000 while the most recent arrivals from India number around 15,000.

Thus, there exist two Indian communities in Holland- the Indo-Surinamese and recent migrants from India (NRIs). Most of the Indians are concentrated in the city of The Hague with 45000 PIOs followed by other cities like Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Utrecht (ranging from 8000-12000 people).

Also Read:Tracing the Indian Diaspora in Suriname

According to a research by Igor Kotin, Senior researcher at Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, “It is estimated that between two and three thousand Indians in Holland are illegal immigrants”.

Social and Economic condition of Indians

Initially, the Surinamese Indians were descendants of the peasants and factory workers. But today the Indian community has evolved as a community with a good variety of occupations. The NRIs are mostly doctors, businessman, engineers, scientists etc. There is a significant increase in the number of Indian families in Holland. The import of leather, tobacco, textiles and consumer goods has given rise to setting up of trading centers in Holland. There are a number of organizations set up to protect the social interests of the Indian community such as the Netherlands Indian Association which organizes cultural events, Indian Ladies club and Foundation of Critical choices for India that prepares studies on issues important for India.

Even today, Surinamese Indians still speak Sarnami Hindi which is a mixture of Bhojpuri and Awadhi language. The Surinamese Indians have managed to integrate well into the society of Holland and contribute to the country’s social and economic life. A number of schools have been set up that teache Hindi and religious subjects.

Murugan Temple, Roermond, The Netherlands
Murugan Temple, Roermond, The Netherlands

RELIGION

In Holland, the majority of Indians are Hindus (80%) and remaining are Muslims (16%) and Christians (4%). There are approximately 2000 Sikhs. A number of Hindu temples have been built by the Surinamese Indians in Holland. The first one was established in The Hague. The biggest Hindu temple is located in Wijchen, a municipality In South Holland. Today there are about 50 mandirs in Holland, a majority of them been set up by Surinamese Indians. Gurdwaras have also come up in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague for Sikhs.

The Aksa mosque in The Hague, Holland Image: Wikipedia
The Aksa mosque in The Hague, Holland
Image: Wikipedia

There is a total of 500 mosques in Holland. The first mosque was founded in The Hague. The biggest mosque is also located in Hague. The Dutch government has also allowed religious groups to set up their own schools. Most of them are Christian schools. Surinamese Indians also run exclusive schools for Hindu community which number to around 5. Muslim schools are 45 in number. Yoga and Ayurveda are also widely practiced.

The concept of ‘arranged marriages’ is still prevalent. The 1980s saw a significant number of marriages between Surinamese Hindu women and Indian men. This produced a significant number of children of mixed parentage but with strong Indian links.

The Indian diaspora in Holland takes pride in belonging to one of the ancient civilizations of the world and is conscious of its rich culture and heritage.

CULTURE

Indians in Holland have made great efforts in preserving their ethnic culture and religion.

Dance & Music

Bharatnatyam and Kathak were the first traces of Indian culture brought by the immigrants in Holland. Many dance schools are established across different municipalities in Holland that teach folk dance, classical Indian dances and modern Indian dance styles. According to Sandra Hira, Chief editor of the Global Atlas of the Indian Diaspora, “Interestingly one of the first dance schools was established by a Dutch lady Mrs. Ans Steenhuis (artist name Damayanti) in The Hague. She had learned the dance from teachers from India, and wrote an (unpublished) manuscript in Dutch as a guide to Indian classical dances.” There are many bands that play Bollywood, folk, and Caribbean Creole music. Many Indian musicians sing at marriages, events, birthdays and other ceremonies. Dutch theaters are also providing plenty of chances to Indian musicians and singers to showcase their talent. Many music and dance students visit India to refine their skills.

Cuisine

Royal Tandoori Indian Restaurant in Amsterdam Image: en.iens.nl
Royal Tandoori Indian Restaurant in Amsterdam
Image: en.iens.nl

Many Indian restaurants have come up all around Holland. Eateries offering Rotis are being run by Surinamese Indians and some Dutch people too. The city of Amsterdam has about 40 Indian restaurants.  Indian Cooking lessons are also given at several places. All major cities and towns have Indian shops selling Basmati rice, vegetables, fruits, Indian spices, flour and home products.

Cinema

The Indian cinema is highly popular in Holland. A number of Dutch cable companies offer access to Indian TV channels and movie broadcasts. The public broadcasts often air Indian films. The Indian Surinamese community in 2000 held an Annual Film Festival in The Hague wherein latest Indian movies were premiered and discussions were held regarding Indian cinema. In 2005, Amsterdam also hosted the IIFA Awards (International Indian Film Academy Awards). There are video outlets being owned and managed by Indians that sell and rent DVD and Videos with Indian movies and songs. The Indian cinema is also popular among the Moroccan and Turkish diaspora in Holland.

Festivals

Indian festivals are celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm in Holland. Holi and Diwali are two of the biggest festivals for the Indian community. On the day of Holi, people gather at the public square to sprinkle water and colors on each other in spite of the chilly weather. The main water fountain of Rotterdam displays colored water. Dances are performed and music is played. On Diwali, diyas are lit in homes. The Hague city also hosts an annual Milan festival to commemorate the different Diaspora in Holland. July 1 for the Africans when slavery was abolished, June 5 when Indian Arrival day is celebrated and August 8 for the Javanese community for celebrating their immigration day. The Milan festival is attended by many people mostly Indians. Rotterdam city also organizes Ramlila.

Media

There is a publication of magazines geared towards the Indian community. The Surinamese Indians have established their own media network. There are dating sites on the Internet for Indians in Holland. The public network airs weekly programs for the Indian community. Radio stations have also been set up by the Indian community to cater to their own interests. They also serve as a medium for important communication relating to death, birthdays, marriages, events etc.

The Kingdom of Netherlands is harboring a whole new world of Indian culture created by the Indian community. It proves that Indians can win hearts of everyone and every nation. They can paint the whole world with their colors and can never leave behind their culture and traditions.

Shubhi Mangla is an intern at Newsgram and a student of Journalism and Mass Communication in New Delhi. Twitter @shubhi_mangla

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Thanksgiving Day Across the World

Thanksgiving Day is celebrated across the world and for each country, it has its own tale and tradition around food and days.

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Thanksgiving Day celebrations
Happy Thanksgiving Day, Wikimedia Commons

Thanksgiving Day. The name stands for itself as the day to give thanks and is celebrated as a national holiday in many countries like United States of America, Canada, Netherlands, Philippines, Grenada, Liberia while similarly named festival exists in Germany, Japan, and United Kingdom.
Thanksgiving holiday remains a day to give thanks at the close of the harvest season.

America
The official date for the American Thanksgiving that exists today was set by President Roosevelt to be on the fourth Thursday in November instead of the last Thursday in November as decided by President Lincoln as thanksgiving date.
But their thanksgiving is surrounded by a debate over the nation’s first celebrations and the two places embroiled in this debate are New England and Virginia as both the places provide certain proofs of being the spot for nation’s first celebrations for Thanksgiving.

Canada
Canadian Thanksgiving tradition is celebrated in the true spirit of giving thanks at the close of the harvest season. It is believed that due to the geographical differences from the USA, Canada’s Thanksgiving arrives on the second Monday in October as that is the close of their harvest season.

But in countries like Liberia, Netherlands, and Grenada, it is not just a day to give thanks at the close of the harvest season.

Liberia
In Liberia, Thanksgiving holiday is celebrated to mark the freedom from black slavery by the U.S.A. The Thanksgiving day’s date remains on the first Thursday of November and has been a tradition since 1820.

Netherlands
Netherlands celebrate thanksgiving to mark to commemorate the Pilgrims who had migrated and became residents of the city of Leiden and died at Pieterskerk. To commemorate the hospitality, the thanksgiving, a non-denominational Thanksgiving Day is celebrated as the same as American Thanksgiving Day’s morning.

But there are some countries like the Philippines where the tradition of Thanksgiving only arrived with the Americans due to it being an American colony in the early 20th century but the tradition of Thanksgiving there had seemed to die down.

Food:
The American Thanksgiving seems to dominate the Thanksgiving menu when it comes to this holiday. Their famous turkey, stuffing, cranberry sauce, gravy, pies, mashed potatoes, and yams are signature dishes related to this day.

Black Friday:
Not only food, American Thanksgiving has also made Black Friday, an informal day following the Thanksgiving Day to mark the beginning of their country’s Christmas season sales and it has been in the history books since 1952 such that it has become a tradition of its own now.

Thanksgiving Day remains an occasion for many families to get back together and celebrate this holiday in the spirit of one while giving the rise to the excitement of upcoming Christmas also which remains barely a month away from Thanksgiving day.

Samridhi Nain is a student of Philosophy (Hons.) from University of Delhi.

 

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Sins in Hinduism: Facts, Meaning,Philosophy,Types & Atonement

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Sins in hinduism
The sins in Hinduism can be washed away with devotional means. Pixabay.
  • Sin is regarded as an impurity arising in one’s body as a consequence to his own evil deeds. It is an effect that can be neutralised through various practices to lead your life into Moksha or liberation.
  • A liberated being or Jivanmukta is purified of all his sins who does not have to go through any further sins and rebirth. In order to make your soul pure and sinless, practice every deed with God’s grace.
  • The Sins in Hinduism, sinful conduct and their remedies have been referred to in Hindu Scriptures such as in Upanishads, Bhagavadgita, Yoga Sutras, Manu Smriti and Garuda Purana. 

As stated about sins in Hinduism, sin may form up with disobedience to God’s divine laws of Dharma. It may however be difficult to follow, but is considered obligatory for humans. The sins in Hinduism can be forgiven if Dharma is upholded as a service to God through self-effort and pure devotion to God.

Sins in Hinduism
Meditation is considered as the easiest from of removing sins in Hinduism. Pixabay.

What is the meaning of Sins in Hinduism?

The word Pāpam (paap) is often used to describe sins in Hinduism as mentioned in the Vedas and Hindu scriptures. Punyam (punya) is the opposite (antonym) of sin. It does not acquire an equivalent word in English since the concept of sins in Hinduism is different in western culture and Christianity.

Separating the word, ‘Pa‘ means to drink, inhale or absorb. ‘Apa‘ means water, combinedly meaning consuming or drinking impure water or poison. Pāpam also denotes evil, wicked, mischievous, destructive, inferior, corrupt and guilt.

It is believed that the sins of Hinduism manifests in the body with the impurities of worldliness (vishaya-asakti). The human body becomes subject to various poisons (visham) such as egoism, greed, ignorance, selfishness, desires and so on, which emerge with our attachments with worldly things (vishayas). These poisons of sins make the humans to take rebirths and deaths until they are removed completely. In the Hindu culture, Lord Shiva is regarded as the destroyer and the healer who gets invoked by devotees prayers and can remove or destroy such poison or sins to grant them liberation.

Sins in Hinduism
The sins in hinduism have been depicted in the scriptures. Pixabay.

What is the Philosophy of Sins in Hinduism?

The sins appear from physical, mental or oral actions, due to the impurities or poisons pertaining to Dharma and Hinduism. The poison of sin is stimulated if one harms intentionally to others or oneself by way of pain and suffering continuing the cycle of rebirth and death.

The repurcussions of sinful acts or karma are fault or mistake (aparadha), worry or anxiety (cintha), impurities or imperfections (doshas), evil intentions (dudhi), evil qualities (dhurta lakshana), immorality (adharma), demonic nature (asura sampatti), chaos or disorderliness (anrta), mental afflictions (klesha), destruction (nirtti), karmic debt (rna), sorrow (shoka), darkness or grossness (tamas) and suffering (pida). Others include: inferior birth, birth through demonic wombs, downfall into hells, increased suffering to ancestors, adversity, loss of reputation.

Sins in Hinduism
Visit Pilgrimage shrines to erase your sins in Hindusim. Pixabay.

What are the types of Sins in Hinduism?

The Dharmashastras of the Hindu scriptures denote sin as Pātaka which represents the causes of one’s downfall or destruction (patanam).The following are the three types of sins in Hinduism: Mortal Sins (Mahapatakas), Secondary Sins (Upa Patakas) and Minor Sins (Prakirna or prasangika Patakas)

The Mahapatakas

These are the gravest and darkest sins in Hinduism leading to the worst downfall of the mortals into the darkest of hells. They can neither be neutralized or washed away without suffering. Some Puranas and Vedas indicate to devote oneself purely to God to remove such sins. The Dharmashastras have stated such five gravest sins termed as the Pancha Mahapatakas. In Hinduism,the company of sinners is also not advisable as associating with sinners will lead you to the same consequences.

The Upa Patakas

These secondary sins may emerge out of minor offenses that include incompetency to perform sacrifices regularly, displeasing the Guru, selling harmful and intoxicating drinks, disbelief in God, giving false witness, making false acclaims, and performing a sacrifice for an unworthy person or unworthy cause and engaging in illicit sex.

The Prakirna Patakas

These type of sins in Hinduism form the minor offenses committed intentionally or unintentionally out of ignorance or carelessness which can be removed or washed away by performing sacrifices (prayaschitta) or by punishments and requesting forgiveness. The law books regard more than fifty minor sins in Hinduism such as selling the wife, making salt, studying forbidden Shastras, killing a woman, marrying the younger son before marrying the elder one, killing insects and other creatures, ignorance to parents, accepting gifts without performing sacrifices,adultery etc.

What are the solutions to overcome Sins?

Fines and punishments

The Dharmashastras render both corporeal and monetary punishments for various offenses or sins in Hinduism, apart from the sufferings in hell or rebirth. According to Hindu scriptures, the ancient era saw immense difference in the application of punishments from caste to caste.

Confession

The best path to deal with sins of Hinduism is to surrender yourself infront of God and seek forgiveness with your own confession of the sin committed. The king was regarded as a similar figure to God who demanded a public confession (abhishasta) from the sinner.

Austerities and Atonement

By performing Vedic traditional rituals, the sins in Hinduism are removed by fasting, virtuous conduct, self-control, practice of nonviolence, truthfulness, austere living, practice of silence, concentration and meditation.

Sins in Hinduism
Your sins in Hinduism can be removed by Devoting yourself to the grace of God. Pixabay.

Rituals and sacrifices

The Vedas have recommended various rituals or sacrifices to wash away the the impurities (dhosas) arising from one’s birth, karma, relationships, place or direction related issues, vastu defects, dangerous diseases and evil conduct.

Prayers and Mantras

Vishnu Purana of the Hindu scriptures pronounce the effective importance of the continuous chanting of names of God (japam) in the Kaliyug. Some mantras and hymns are considered more significant than meditation and sacrifices to clean the impurities of the body.

Recitation of the Vedas and other Sacred Books

Knowledge (jnana) has the eternal power to remove the sins in Hinduism. It can be derived with regular reading up and learning from the scriptures of sacred importance.

Visiting pilgrimages

To grant your devotion and gratitude, Hinduism seeks to commit to Dharma by visiting holy pilgrimage place. It is a divine form of self-cleansing and experiencing peace and happiness.

Bathing in the sacred rivers

The sacred pilgrimages are mostly located near the banks of the rivers that are also treated as purifiers. Hence, bathing in those rivers lead your life into devotional worship as a purification rituals to overcome sins in Hinduism.

Yoga and Meditation

Pranayama and meditation are the suggested methods to practise peace and overcome past sins. They also form a major part of the austerities to cleanse the internal mind and body.

The blessings of saints and gurus

Saints, sadhus and mahatmas have been given a special status in Hinduism because of their respectful purity and virtue. They acquire divine knowledge and supreme powers, with which they cleanse those who approach them for blessings.

Sins in Hinduism
Worshipping the saints remove the sins in hinduism. Pixabay.

Virtuous conduct

Sinful karma can be countered with huge efforts into virtuous karma. The sins in Hinduism are washed away with kind and healthy conduct to everyone equally.

Charity

Dana (gift giving) or charity is very significant in Hindu Dharma. By conducting sacrifices and spiritual practices one must conduct charity as well. As a part of Vedas, the higher castes are under obligation to perform five daily sacrifices including offer food to gods, ancestors, sages, humans and creatures.

-Prepared by Bhavana Rathi of NewsGram. Twitter @tweet_bhavana

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Hinduism is Not an Official or Preferred Religion in Any Country of The World, Says a New Report

Though Hinduism is the third largest religion of the world, it is not the official state religion of any country according to a Pew Research Center Report

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Hinduism
Hinduism is not an official religion of any country in the world. Instagram.
  • No country has declared Hinduism as its official state religion – despite India being an influential Hindu political party
  • Hinduism is not an official or preferred religion in any country of the world, according to a Pew Research Center report.
  • 53% of 199 nations considered in the study don’t have an official religion
  • 80 countries are assigned either an “official religion” or “preferred religion”

Nevada, USA, October 16: Hinduism is the primeval and third largest religion of the world with about 1.1 billion followers of moksh (liberation) being its utmost desire of life. India is among the category of nations where the government do not have an official or preferred religion.

Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank headquartered in Washington DC that aims to inform the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.

The report states that a country’s official religion is regarded as a legacy of its past and present privileges granted by the state. And a few other countries fall on the other side of the gamut, and propagate their religion as the ‘official religion’, making it a compulsion for all citizens.

It adds up on the context of allocation that more than eight-in-ten countries (86%) provide financial support or resources for religious education programs and religious schools that tend to benefit the official religion.

Hinduism
Islam is the most practiced official religion of the world. Instagram.

Commenting on Hinduism, the report states:

In 2015, Nepal came close to enshrining Hinduism, but got rejected of a constitutional amendment due to a conflict between pro-Hindu protesters and state police.

Although India has no official or preferred religion as mentioned in the Constitution,it was found by PEW that in India the intensity of government constraints and social antagonism involving religion was at a peak. “Nigeria, India, Russia, Pakistan and Egypt had the highest levels of social hostilities involving religion among the 25 most populous countries in 2015. All fell into the “very high” hostilities category,” the report added.

As per the 2011 census, it was found that 79.8% of the Indian population idealizes Hinduism and 14.2% practices to Islam, while the rest 6% pursuit other religions.

While Hinduism stands up with the majority, Article 25 of the Constitution of India contributes secularism allowing for religious freedom and allows every Indian to practice his/her religion, without any intervention by the community or the government.

Distinguished Hindu statesman Rajan Zed, President of Universal Society of Hinduism, applauded the Hindu community for their benefaction to the society and advised Hindus to concentrate on inner purity, attract spirituality towards youth and children, stay far from the greed, and always keep God in the life.

According to Pew, these are “places where government officials seek to control worship practices, public expressions of religion and political activity by religious groups”.

-by Bhavana Rathi of NewsGram.  She can be reached @tweet_bhavana