New Delhi: Indian media and entertainment industry has the potential to log $100 billion (Rs.650,000 crore) turn over by 2025 provided it gets adequate infrastructure and government support, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) said on Sunday.
“Indian media and entertainment industry has the potential to reach $100 billion by 2025,” the CII said on the eve of its two-day Big Picture Summit beginning here on Monday.
“This would imply growth to Rs.210,000-250,000 crore by 2020. Such robust growth can come only on the back of enabling infrastructure and the support of the government and the industry itself,” a CII and Boston Consulting Group vision paper prepared for the summit said.
“With a growth potential of 13-16 percent year-on-year it has the potential to emerge as one of the largest employment providers, contributing significantly to the gross domestic product,” said the paper titled Vision 2020 Document on Media and Entertainment Sector.
The current size of the industry is estimated at about Rs.115,000 crore.
Digital media advertising in 2014 grew at a staggering 44.5 percent in 2014 over the previous year.
“The next decade will see a consumption explosion with the rapid growth of digital media. India already has 250-300 million digital screens which include smart phones, tablets, laptops and PCs,” said CII director general Chandrajit Banerjee.
“This is more than the number of TV and film screens put together. This number is projected to multiply to 600 million screens by 2020, implying that every second Indian will have a personal media consumption device. The impact of this will be massive,” he added.
For the films sector, however, 2014 presented a mixed picture, with a handful of box-office records, while several more were unable to attract audiences. Thus, overall profitability was impacted.
Actor-producer Ajay Devgn and veteran actress Sharmila Tagore are among those likely to participate in the summit during October 19-20.
The report says the next decade could also provide India the opportunity to emerge as a global media and entertainment hub.
“Unlike mature Western markets, digital media could expand the overall market size by tapping into latent demand and driving new media consumption rather than merely replacing other, more traditional platforms,” Kanchan Samtani, partner at Boston Consulting Group said.
Cases of sexual violence, including rape, fall within the larger realm of domestic violence
Marital rape is yet to be categorized as a criminal offence in India
According to the central government, criminalizing marital rape “may destabilize the institution of marriage”
New Delhi, September 2, 2017 : Baby works as a domestic help; she says she cannot recall her age when her parents married her off to a man who was much older to her; a man she barely knew. She didn’t anticipate her husband would demand to have intercourse on their wedding night. She was still young and not ready, but that didn’t stop him. Baby was raped by her husband on her wedding night. But marital rape means nothing to her.
Sunita irons clothes for a living. She says has been married for more years than she can remember. The duo has four kids together, but that doesn’t stop her husband from raising a hand or two on her, every once in a while. Every night, her husband would get drunk, hit her and forcefully demand to have sex, paying no heed to her resistance. Sunita has three daughters, and a son, and the husband still wants to have progenies. “I told my mother that this man has raped me multiple times. She protested, arguing that he is ‘your husband’ after all,” she said.
But did she never decide to approach the authorities?
To this, Sunita promptly replied, “I once had a sore eye after he (the husband) hit me with his shoe when I refused to have sex. I went to the local hospital and then the police. I narrated the entire scene; they were very considerate, offered me water and then asked me to go home and ‘adjust’.”
Sunita is unaware of a term called ‘marital rape’.
This is the reality of a huge part of the society in real India.
Like Baby and Sunita, women who suffer such indignities are often asked to “adjust” with perpetrators of violence because of a deep –embedded fear of what the society would say. This notion of an ‘ideal woman’ impedes women to object to illicit treatment meted out by their ‘better halves’.
The debate around the issue has become ripe once again with the Central Government stating that what “may appear to be marital rape” to a wife “may not appear so to others”. In an affidavit to the Delhi High Court, the central government took a stand against criminalizing marital rape saying that it “may destabilize the institution of marriage” and also become easy tool for harass the husbands and the in-laws.
Rape is defined in Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code, but with an irregularity: “Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape.”
While rape is addressed as perforation without a woman’s accord in its main clause, the only remedy to forced intercourse provided to ‘married’ woman is specified under Section 498-A of the IPC and the civil provisions of the Protection of Women from Domestiic Violence Act.
Following the horrific 2012 Nirbhaya rape case that brought the entire world to a standstill, the Indian media has given paramount coverage to instances of rape across the country. But even after 5 years of the gut-wrenching incident, there seems no end to this crime.
Cases of sexual violence, including rape, fall within the larger realm of domestic violence. However, rape by husbands within holy matrimony continues to remain an obscure subject in India and the exact number of cases is hard to gauge.
According to a 2015 report by National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB) tracing the proximity of offenders to the victims of sexual violence, it was revealed that in 95 per cent of all rapes, the offenders were familiar to the survivors. These, presumably include acquaintances, friends, relatives and colleagues.
And what about rape committed by husbands?
In light of the debate over marital rape, a reminder: if you actually ask women, almost all the sexual violence they face is from husbands pic.twitter.com/BRVXk0cbbJ
These cases continue to be an under-reported crime in India. This can be attributed to two major reasons,
Because of the stigma associated with it
Because of the presence of a defunct justice system
Furthermore, more often than not, these cases go missing because of several additional (and unnecessary) barriers stemming from a combination of familial and/or social power structures, shame and dependency.
Marital Rape In India
While most of the developed world has penalized marital rape, surprisingly it is yet to be categorized as an offence in India.
A United Nations’ report titled ‘Why do some men use violence against women and how can we prevent it?’ published in 2013 disclosed that nearly a quarter of 10,000 men in Asia-Pacific region, including India, admitted to have indulged in the rape of a female partner. The report traced their rationale to a deep-embedded belief that they are entitled to sex despite the consent of their partners.
The study also revealed that the majority of these instances were not reported and the perpetrators faced no legal consequences.
In 2014, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in association with International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) brought out a report titled ‘Masculinity, Intimate Partner Violence and Son Preference in India’. Among other things, the report analyzed the average Indian male’s understanding and interpretation of the idea of ‘masculinity’ and how that molds their interactions with women.
Not surprisingly, the study revealed that a typical man in the Indian society associated the attributes ‘tough’, and ‘controlling’ with masculinity.
Segments of the present day Indian society continue to look at men as tough forces, who can (must) freely exercise their privilege to establish rule in personal relationships and above all, continue to control women.
Additionally, the study also revealed that 60 per cent of the Indian men disclosed the use of physical violence to establish authority.
In India, stiff patriarchal norms continue to tilt the gender balance firmly in the favor of men, as a result of which, women are forced to internalize male dominance in their lives.
Marital Rape in India : A Legal Perspective
Section 375 essentially distinguishes between two categories of women
Much to the Indian society’s disappointment, the Indian legal system denies protection from rape to the married woman. This creates discrimination as the women belonging to one section are denied justice merely by virtue of being married.
But can there be two different definitions of rape? Can there be a differentiation between the rape of a married woman and the rape of an unmarried woman? Is it justified to discriminate a woman just because she is married to the man who has raped her?
The Debate Around Marital Rape In India
Despite the piquant situation, the issue raised furor when Minister of State for Home, Haribhai Parathibhai Chaudhary told the Parliament that the question of criminalizing marital rape in India has no relevance “as marriage is treated as sacred here.”
Does marriage being a sacrament provide one with the legal right to rape a woman?
South Asia director at Human Rights Watch Meenakshi Ganguly had retaliated saying that it is particularly concerning when a government that claims to secure the safety of women inside and outside national territory shamelessly turn to justify a crime in the name of culture and tradition.
India can learn something from its neighbours. Nepal has laws against marital rape, so does Bhutan
Group director of social and economic development at the International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) Priya Nanda asserted in an interview with a leading portal that “the reason men don’t want to criminalize marital rape is because they don’t want to give a woman the power to say no.”
In 2013, a three-member commission headed by Justice J.S. Verma suggested remedial measures to combat sexual violence in India, following the 2012 Nirbhaya rape case. One of its recommendations was the criminalization of marital rape.
The recommendation was ignored by the government as a large amount of people questioned its efficiency saying if made a crime,
It might be misused by people
It will be difficult to prove
It might break up marriages
But, how fair is it to not have a law against marital rape, only because of the reason that it is ‘difficult to prove’?
In a broader understanding, it needs to be understood that the criminalization of marital rape must not be viewed as a step against men or the institution of matrimony, but as an attempt to demolish the patriarchal system that continues to clutch the Indian society.
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New Delhi, Jan 15, 2017: Grand Mufti Abdulaziz al-sheikh, in an interview warned of the depravity of cinemas and musical concerts. Saudi Arabia’s highest ranking cleric, Grand Mufti Abdulaziz al-sheikh while responding to a question about the plans of the kingdom’s General Authority for Entertainment to license concerts and study opening cinemas, gave a statement saying, “Cinemas and music concerts would corrupt morals if allowed in the ultra-conservative kingdom.”
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The head of the Saudi supreme council of clerics said, “Cinemas might show movies that are libertine, lewd, immoral and atheist, because they rely on films imported to change our culture.”
Al-sheikh gave many statements opposing music concerts saying the concerts don’t really promote good music and are not at all a medium to connect with music. He insisted that music entertainment and opening cinemas represent a call for mixing between sexes. Al-sheikh said, “At the beginning they would assign areas for women, but then both men and women will end up in one area. This corrupts morals and destroys values.”
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Recently a show by American stand-up comedian and actor Mike Epps at a university campus in western Saudi Arabia was cancelled last month. However, he also said that entertainment through cultural and scientific media is okay. He urged the authorities, “not to open the doors for the evil.”
November 11, 2016: Movies have become a very prominent and important source of entertainment. There has been a tremendous increase in movie releases in the twenty-first century. Be it romance, horror, tragedy; movies have explored very many emotions and molded them into various shapes depending on the era and audience.
Studies have revealed that adrenaline junkies get pleasure being scared by horror movies, this may result to risking of physical and mental health unknowingly. An intense scene in a movie causes an increase in blood pressure that might lead to a heart attack to people with cardiovascular weaknesses.
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Repressed traumatic memories often dredge up with a sudden spike in adrenaline and cortisone level on watching horror movies. With the change of our brain chemistry, it reminds us of that time which suffered the similar state, even if one has no idea about it. Thus if one had any terrifying memory in the past, getting scared can again rejuvenate it again.
Tearjerkers should be avoided if someone had suffered a depression. The tragic parts of a movie have often ruminated by individuals with prior depression. This can result in returning back to the previous depressed state.
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Movies are not only replete with negative sway over its audience, otherwise, it would have been banned till date. But with its wide proliferation, it can be guessed that there are some positive features as well. Health benefits are also associated with movies. For
Health benefits are also associated with movies. For example: Baby’s Day Out, a comedy movie helps in lowering blood pressure. Intense laughter for 15 minutes during a film has the same effect on our cardiovascular system as exercising.
Even porn films can improve our health. A report mentions that “Watching Porn Makes Your Brain Shut Down” in case of a female-friendly porn, but an intense study have shown that those parts are the ones none of us really want going a mile a minute anyway. The main area to “shut down” controlled anxiety.
Sad movies also have similar effects on brain. After watching a sad movie we generally tend to come out of it thinking about our loved ones and feeling happy with what we have. Movies like “Striped pyjamas,” where one can relate to the tragic situation of the child protagonist and it was seen that the audience, especially children looked happier as they felt they are in a safer environment.
Apart from health benefits, it is needless to say that movies also help in enhancing one’s creative talents. A study showed that young children who watched ‘Alice in Wonderland’, especially the ones involved with magic, scored significantly higher on a creative thinking test than children who had watched something else. Magical movies often tend to enhance creativity and at times work as a problem solver agent.
Movies can be categorized into two types- one for entertainment purpose and other for learning purpose. Thoughtful movies often possess a magical quality and it will force the audience to think about the topic thoroughly even when one goes out of the movie hall.
Movies like ‘SHOBDO’, ‘NIL BATE SANNATA’, ‘PANTHER PANCHALI’, ‘MONALISA SMILE’, these movies are not made for just entertainment purpose. They are more of thought invoking stories and contains important social message. However, there are very limited audience of these movies yet they bring in very impactful message.
Parents, scientists, politicians often criticize entertainment channels for garnering violence to young minds. Studies have also proven the same thing. Watching aggression on screen can contribute to being a bully in real life, even if for a limited period of time.
A study of 250 women found that when they watched clips of violence, bullying, or even just malicious gossiping and testing them and after some time, the results were amazing. The women were more likely to place importance subconsciously, on words describing violence or aggression. There are people on both sides of the argument and each tends to produce extremism in their theories.
One side is the view that these aggressions produce killers, whereas, the other side casually let it down saying that it has no effect at all. With the coming of new theories, the answer somewhere lies in the middle!