London: The upcoming sale of Bonham’s Islamic and Indian Art will offer Indian miniatures this time. The auction, to be held on April 19 will display 315 items in several categories including glassware and ceramics, calligraphy and illustration, carving, bronze, carpets, miniatures and textiles.
Key highlights of the sale include 50 miniatures encapsulating a broad range of Indian painting from the 17th to the 19th century. The miniatures are part of the celebrated collection of Indian art belonging to New Yorkers Evelyn and Peter Kraus.
The miniatures depict traditional scenes painted in vibrant gouache and lavishly accented with gold leaf. One of the highlights of the collection is Maharaja Man Singh celebrating the festival of Holi, estimated at 20,000 to 30,000 pounds.
The painting, from the Jodhpur school, is characterised by the use of bright, glowing pigments, and it also employs a dynamic composition to represent the joyous carnival in celebration of the arrival of spring. Another notable work is of a Sikh ruler and several noblemen being entertained by musicians and dancers on a palace terrace, estimated at 10,000-15,000 pounds.
The works, from the tradition of Kangra painting, illustrate a precise yet lyrical narrative of 19 th century India in lustrous colours.
Agra Fort from the East, attributed to Sita Ram and painted circa 1815, estimated at 15,000-20,000 pounds, has a more muted colour scheme and shows a view of the red sandstone walls of the eastern gate of the Fort, with people and camels milling around in the foreground.
The collection also includes a group of 15 Company School studies of animals and plants, mostly painted in Calcutta (now Kolkata) in the early 19th century. Company painting developed as a result of Indian artists working in the manner of British artists for European and Indian patrons in the 18th century. Their eye for striking detail rendered in water colours make the works charming additions to the collection. The studies will be individually sold, with the estimated total value at 34,000-48,000 pounds.
‘These paintings show the incredible range of Indian painting across the centuries, from Mughal works and South Indian depictions of acrobats to scenes from the vibrant world of Hindu mythology,’ said Rukmani Kumari Rathore, a specialist in Indian and Islamic Art at Bonhams,
‘They also represent a spectacular age in the tradition of miniature painting. Their diversity in style and aesthetic shows how Indian artists were developing their technique over the centuries,’ she added
When Neha Maldar testified against the traffickers who enslaved her as a sex worker in India, she spoke from the safety of her own country, Bangladesh, via videoconferencing, a technology that could revolutionize the pursuit of justice in such cases.
The men in the western city of Mumbai appeared via video link more than 2,000 km (1,243 miles) west of Maldar as she sat in a government office in Jessore, a major regional hub for sex trafficking, 50 km from Bangladesh’s border with India.
“I saw the people who had trafficked me on the screen and I wasn’t scared to identify them,” Maldar, who now runs a beauty parlor from her home near Jessore, told Reuters. “I was determined to see them behind bars.”
“I told them how I was beaten for refusing to work in the brothel in the beginning and how the money I made was taken away,” she said, adding that she had lied to Indian authorities about her situation after being rescued, out of fear.
Thousands of people from Bangladesh and Nepal — mainly poor, rural women
and children — are lured to India each year by traffickers who promise good jobs but sell them into prostitution or domestic servitude, anti-slavery activists say.
Activists hope the safe, convenient technology could boost convictions. A Bangladeshi sex trafficker was jailed for the first time in 2016 on the strength of a victim’s testimony to a court in Mumbai via video link from Dhaka, Bangladesh’s capital.
Convictions for cross-border trafficking in the region are rare as most victims choose not to pursue cases that have traditionally required them to testify in Indian courts, which meant staying in a shelter for the duration of the trial.
“They have always wanted to go back home, to their families,” said Shiny Padiyara, a legal counsel at the Indian charity Rescue Foundation that has facilitated videoconferencing cases and runs shelters for trafficking victims. “And most never return to testify.”
But videoconferencing is making it easier to pursue justice. Survivors have given statements, identified their traffickers, and been cross examined in at least 10 other ongoing international cases in Bangladesh, advocates said.
“Enabling victims to testify via video conference will lead to a possible decrease in acquittal rates for want of prime witnesses,” said Adrian Phillips of Justice and Care, a charity that supports the use of video testimony to help secure justice.
Even then, it is tough. During Maldar’s three-hour deposition, she withstood a tough cross-examination, showed identity documents to prove her age and countered allegations by the defense lawyer that she was lying about her identity.
Tara Khokon Miya is preparing her 27-year-old daughter to testify against the men who trafficked her to India from Dhaka, where she had been working in a garment factory.
“I almost lost my daughter forever,” she said, sitting in her home in Magura, less than 50 km from Jessore, describing how she disappeared after work and was taken to a brothel in India, and raped and beaten for almost a year before being rescued.
“What the traffickers did to my daughter was unpardonable,” Miya said, wiping her tears. “We seek justice. I nurtured her in my womb and can’t describe what it felt like to not know about her whereabouts.”
The trial has been ongoing since 2013 when the young woman, who declined to be named, was repatriated. The charity Rights Jessore is helping the family through the process, by providing counseling and rehearsing cross-examination.
“The best thing is her father will be by her side when she talks in court,” Miya said, finally breaking into a smile.
India signed a bilateral agreement with Bangladesh in 2015 to ensure faster trafficking investigations and prosecutions, and with Nepal in 2017, and laid down basic procedures to encourage the use of videoconferencing in court proceedings.
“The procedure is very transparent,” said judge K M Mamun Uzzaman at Jessore courthouse, which often converts its conference hall into a courtroom for videoconferencing cases to protect survivors’ privacy.
“I’m usually present and victims are able to testify confidently … it is easy and cost effective for us,” he said. “But the biggest beneficiaries are the survivors.”
Videoconferencing in Bangladesh has been plagued by technical glitches such as power cuts and poor connections.
“Sometimes the internet connection is weak or it gets disconnected during the testimony,” said Binoy Krishna Mallick head of Rights Jessore, a pioneer in using this technology to encourage trafficking survivors to pursue justice. “But these are just teething troubles.”
The bigger challenge, activists say, is to ensure survivors remain committed to the trial despite delays caused by a backlog of cases and witnesses’ failure to appear to testify.
Swati Chauhan, one of the first judges to experiment with video testimony in 2010, is convinced that technology can eliminate many of these hurdles.
“Victims go through a lot of trauma, so it is natural that they don’t want to confront their trafficker in a court — but that doesn’t mean they don’t want the trafficker to be punished,” she said. “A videoconference requires meticulous planning and it is not easy coordinating between departments and countries. But it is the future for many seeking justice.” (VOA)