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Innocent Civilians suffer the most in Lethal Combat against the Taliban

As many as 3,500 civilian deaths were recorded in 2015, with one in four deaths being those of a child.

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  • Taliban promises to avenge former leader Mullah Mansour’s death
  • Innocent civilians caught in a crossfire between Taliban and the Afghan Government
  • Security experts say there is no hope of peace in the distant future

Mullah Mansour, former leader of the Taliban, was killed in US drones strikes last week in Pakistan, a year after he assumed the leadership role. The terrorist organization has promised to avenge its leader’s death in the most violent ways possible, a development greatly regretted by the civilians of Afghanistan.

Mullah Akhtar Mohammad Mansour
Mullah Akhtar Mohammad Mansour

Ever since September 2015, Taliban had been performing increasingly lethal attacks against the Afghan Government, ruthlessly destroying the settlements of civilians along the way. Families have been carelessly torn apart with no one to sympathize with their pain and sorrow. The battle of Kunduz, which commenced in April 2015 in an effort by the Taliban forces to take control of the city, assumed a more savage form with the onset of the Mansour leadership.

With each execution of leaders and appointment of new ones, life becomes harder for the average citizen in Afghanistan. These poor civilians, who are not concerned with either the Taliban or the Afghan government, helplessly suffer the worst forms of inhumanity. Rape, molestations, murders and kidnappings are some of the basic mistreatments hurled at these poor souls through the course of this long and everlasting war. TOLO News, Afghanistan’s first 24-hour broadcasting service, after its report on the ill doings of the Taliban, received multiple threats from the organization, which claimed the report to be false.

Mohammed Ali Mohammadi, who worked for Kaboora, a production company affiliated with TOLO News, was killed by Taliban suicide bombings in January, leaving behind his wife and two children to fend for themselves in these troubled times. Similarly, another innocent civilian, Saifullah was killed in a massive car bomb attack in Kabul last month, with his father, wife and five children mourning his death.

These stories are just a couple among thousand others, and yet, even through these times of turmoil, security experts and sources close to Taliban have disclosed that peace cannot be expected in the near future. A UN report from February illustrates the fact that more than 3,500 civilians were killed in 2015, and an appalling one in four deaths were that of a child’s, a big rise as compared to last year’s records, making this the highest number of deaths noted.

The appointment of a new leader brings little hope for an end to this widespread bloodshed. Mullah Haibatullah Akhundzada is believed to be a tough military hardliner who has no intentions of ceasefire and will only fuel this warfare further. Although Afghan President, Ashraf Ghani, on behalf of the afghan government, has issued an ultimatum to the new leader, to lay down arms and resume normal life, or face the same fate as Mullah Mansoor, analysts believe it won’t be of any help, as it calls for an immediate surrender instead of negotiation and peace talks, something that the terrorist organization will not digest.

Written by Saurabh Bodas.

Saurabh studies Mechatronics Engineering at Manipal Institute of Technology.

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US Researchers Redefine Conditions that Makes a Planet Habitable

The researchers also found that planets with thin ozone layers, which have otherwise habitable surface temperatures, receive dangerous levels of UV dosages

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Planet
Instruments, such as the Hubble Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope, have the capability to detect water vapor and ozone on a Planet. Pixabay

A team of US researchers has redefined the conditions that make a Planet habitable by taking the star’s radiation and the planet’s rotation rate into account – a discovery that will help astronomers narrow down the search around life-sustaining planets.

The research team is the first to combine 3D climate modeling with atmospheric chemistry to explore the habitability of planets around M dwarf stars, which comprise about 70 per cent of the total galactic population.

Among its findings, the Northwestern team, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder, NASA’s Virtual Planet Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, discovered that only planets orbiting active stars — those that emit a lot of ultraviolet (UV) radiation — lose significant water to vaporization.

Planets around inactive, or quiet, stars are more likely to maintain life-sustaining liquid water.

The researchers also found that planets with thin ozone layers, which have otherwise habitable surface temperatures, receive dangerous levels of UV dosages, making them hazardous for complex surface life.

“It’s only in recent years that we have had the modeling tools and observational technology to address this question,” said Northwestern’s Howard Chen, the study’s first author.

“Still, there are a lot of stars and planets out there, which means there are a lot of targets,” added Daniel Horton, senior author of the study. “Our study can help limit the number of places we have to point our telescopes”.

The research was published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Horton and Chen are looking beyond our solar system to pinpoint the habitable zones within M dwarf stellar systems.

M dwarf planets have emerged as frontrunners in the search for habitable planets.

Planet
A team of US researchers has redefined the conditions that make a Planet habitable by taking the star’s radiation and the planet’s rotation rate into account. Pixabay

They get their name from the small, cool, dim stars around which they orbit, called M dwarfs or “red dwarfs”.

By coupling 3D climate modeling with photochemistry and atmospheric chemistry, Horton and Chen constructed a more complete picture of how a star’s UV radiation interacts with gases, including water vapor and ozone, in the planet’s atmosphere.

Instruments, such as the Hubble Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope, have the capability to detect water vapor and ozone on exoplanets. They just need to know where to look.

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“‘Are we alone?’ is one of the biggest unanswered questions,” Chen said. “If we can predict which planets are most likely to host life, then we might get that much closer to answering it within our lifetimes.” (IANS)