Today is the 157th birth anniversary of one of the most outstanding scientists and a pioneer in plant research and wireless communication in the last few centuries- Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose.
He was born in 1858 in Mymensingh, which is now in Bangladesh. His father Bhagawan Chandra Bose was Deputy Magistrate. Bose graduated from St. Xavier’s College, Calcutta in Physical sciences and then went to Cambridge to study Natural Sciences. He returned back to India in 1884 and later joined the Presidency College of University of Calcutta as a Professor of Physics.
Bose faced racial discrimination while he was working in Presidency College. His very appointment was opposed by the Principal of the college C H Tawney. Discrimination was also shown in the salary allotted to him. He was offered a salary of just 100 rupees per month, though his European counterparts were earning 300 rupees per month.
Bose refused to accept his salary in protest and worked for three years without salary. Only after three years, was his salary raised and paid in full retrospectively. Further, Bose faced difficulties with respect to research space. He was forced to create a makeshift laboratory at his home.
Bose’s major field of research was in wireless communication and plant physiology. Though, Marconi is popularly given credit for developing radio, it was Bose who first developed the wireless communications and demonstrated the practical use of microwaves.In 1894, he ignited the gunpowder and rang the bell present at a distance using microwaves. He also developed Mercury Coherer, which was later used by Marconi in his experiments.
In the field of Plant physiology, Bose’s most important contribution was his demonstration that plants do respond to various external stimuli like heat, cold, light, etc. He invented an instrument called Crescograph and used it to record even minute responses that plants exhibited to external stimuli. Thus, he successfully proved parallelism between tissues of animals and plants.
Throughout his life, Bose was against the concept of patenting and commercialising his scientific inventions and discoveries. He believed that scientific work must be done for the sake of humanity and not for monetary gains. This was also one of the contributing factors behind the radio controversy.
Bose authored many books and papers, including science fictions. He set up Bose Institute in Calcutta and, in 1920 he was elected the Fellow of the Royal Society. He was also awarded Knighthood in 1917. Finally, he passed away on November 23, 1937. He was a scientist par excellence, but above all, he was a traditional Indian at heart, who was rooted in Indian culture and values. He was a true Karma Yogi, who dedicated his whole life in the service of mankind through Science.
Both China and India started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s. Different policies and historical circumstances have, however, led them to different educational outcomes, with China outperforming India not just in terms of its percentage of literate population and enrollment rates at all levels of education, but also in terms of number of world-class institutions in higher education, and greater research output.
The roots of China’s successful education system date back to the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), which unintentionally expanded access to the primary education through democratising the schooling system, which was previously elitist in character, thus addressing the problem of mass illiteracy.
In contrast, India continued to focus on its higher education system since independence and only realised the importance of basic education in 1986, keeping it behind China and many other countries in Asia in educational development. In terms of enrollment, China reached a 100 percent gross enrollment rate (GER) in its primary education in 1985, whereas, India attained that level only in 2000.
In terms of secondary school enrollment, India and China both started at the similar rates in 1985, with about 40 percent of their population enrolled in secondary schools. However, due to a wider base of primary school students, the rate of increase in China has been much faster than in India, with 99 percent secondary enrollment rate in China and 79 percent in India in 2017.
India is closing in on the Chinese rate in terms of access to education, but on the literacy level front, there is a huge gap in the percentage of literate populations in the two countries. In the age group of 15-24 years, India scores 104th rank on literacy and numeracy indicator, compared to China’s 40th rank.
The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which assesses after every three years the domain knowledge of 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, science and finance, revealed that students in China performed above the OECD average in 2015. Moreover, one in four students in China are top performers in mathematics, having an ability to formulate complex situations mathematically. Further, China outperforms all the other participating countries in financial literacy, by having a high ability to analyse complex finance products. For India, the comparable data is not available as it was not a participating country in PISA 2015.
However, in India, the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2017 provides data for rural youth, aged 14-18, with respect to their abilities to lead productive lives as adults. According to this survey, only about half of the 14-year-old children in the sample could read English sentences, and more than half of the students surveyed could not do basic arithmetic operations, like division. For basic financial calculations, such as managing a budget or making a purchase decision, less than two-thirds could do the correct calculations.
With regard to the higher education system, both India and China dominate the number of tertiary degree holders because of their large population size, but when it comes to the percentage of the population holding tertiary degrees, only about 10 per cent and 8 per cent of the population possess university degrees in China and India, respectively. By contrast, in Japan, almost 50 per cent of the population holds a tertiary degree, and in the United States, 31 per cent of the population hold a tertiary degree.
In terms of the international recognition of universities, the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Ranking for 2019 places seven of the China’s universities in the top 200, compared to none for India. The global university rankings, which are based on various performance metrices, pertaining to teaching, research, citations, international outlook and industrial income, shows progress for several of China’s low-ranked universities, largely driven by improvements in its citations.
In fact, the Tsinghua University has overtaken the National University of Singapore (NUS) to become the best university in Asia due to improvements in its citations, institutional income and increased share of international staff, students and co-authored publications.
While India has progressed in terms of massification of education, there is still a lot which needs to be done when it comes to catching up with the China’s educational outcomes. China’s early start in strengthening its primary and secondary education systems has given it an edge over India in terms of higher education. Moreover, Chinese government strategies are designed in line with the criterion used in major world university rankings, especially emphasis is on the two factors which weigh heavily in the rankings — publications and international students.
The relentless publications drive, which is very evident in China, is weak in India and has led to a growing gap in the number of publications contributed by the two countries. Further, China enrolled about 292,611 foreign students in 2011 from 194 countries, while India currently only has 46,144 foreign students enrolled in its higher education institutions, coming from 166 countries. The large number of international enrollments in China is a reflection of its state policies granting high scholarships to foreign students.
To catch up with China, India needs to lay emphasis on improving its educational outcomes. Massification drive for education has helped India raise its student enrollments, but a lot needs to be done when it comes to global recognition for its universities. Further, it needs to focus on building the foundation skills which are acquired by students at the school age, poor fundamental skills flow through the student life, affecting adversely the quality of education system. (IANS)