The Sanskrit word Moksha is perhaps central to Hindu philosophy. It can be roughly translated as salvation but it does not really imply that. Moksha has far greater complexity than the word salvation connotes.
The idea of moksha is unique to Indian thought and culture. It is attainment of ultimate peace (Shanti), knowledge (Videh), and enlightenment (Kaivalya). The term refers to liberation of oneself from the cycle of death and rebirth. A commonmisconception among the western scholars is that moksha implies an escape from reality. Moksha rather helps to free us from the fear of death and takes us into a world beyond categories.
Moksha is a Sanskrit word meaning ‘release’ or ‘liberation’ from shackles of the world, from the cycle of birth-death-rebirth or more appropriately ‘Incarnation’.
The concept of moksha, brings us squarely to the twin realities of birth and death. The desire not to be born and the desire to seek death are perhaps difficult to comprehend in a world dominated by the myth of total physical gratification in the here and now.
The logic simply directs to perform our worldly duties (dharma), acquire material wealth (artha) and realize desire (kama) to move towards the final goal that is salvation or moksha. Hinduism does not advocate a life of austerities but one of fulfillment and then final transcendence. Moksha like Hinduism is not just a belief or a concept but a way of life.
There is an argument by some Hindu liberals thinking “what the problem in it”? They think our knowledge is globalized by West in the same way we consume inventions of the West. But it’s a very naïve argument.
Colonial or a white supremacy mind set may be clever enough to adopt Hindu practices but denies giving credit where it is due. Stealing Hindu Intellectual Property, they do not hesitate to rename and repackage so that they can sell it back to India for immense profits. Off course, they will leave no chance to tell Indians to stop their superstitious ways and to adopt the new scientific knowledge which “they” have “invented”.
Following has been already digested or appropriated by West. Some of the Western academics don’t believe that they belong to India.
Yoga Nidra AS Lucid Dreaming
Nadi Shodhana AS Alternate Nostrils Breathing
Vipassana AS Mindfulness.
The latest addition to this list is
Pranamyam AS Cardiac Coherence Breathing
Several researchers have reported that pranayama techniques are beneficial in treating a range of stress-related disorders. But the latest attempt has taken the appropriation too far. An American magazine “Scientific American” in its article titled “Proper Breathing Brings Better health” termed “Pranayama” as cardiac coherence breathing. (15 January 2019). The article gives us an idea about how West is so sophisticated in stealing knowledge from ancient cultures particularly Hinduism.
Prāṇāyāma is mentioned in verse 4.29 of the Bhagavad Gītā. According to Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is, prāṇāyāma is translated to “trance induced by stopping all breathing”, also being made from the two separate Sanskrit words, prāṇa and āyām. Pranayama is the fourth “limb” of the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga mentioned in verse 2.29 in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Patanjali, a Hindu Rishi, discusses his specific approach to pranayama in verses 2.49 through 2.51, and devotes verses 2.52 and 2.53 to explaining the benefits of the practice. Many yoga teachers advise that pranayama should be part of an overall practice that includes the other limbs of Patanjali’s Raja Yoga teachings, especially Yama, Niyama, and Asana.
“Pranayama” a department of Yogic science practiced and documented 5000 years back ( even 15,000 years back) by Rishis is not even acknowledged by the author of the article. If one read the article they vaguely suggest that breathing exercises also existed in China, Hindu and in Greek culture. This is how appropriation of ancient techniques takes place by West. As Sankrat Sanu an entrepreneur, researcher and writer put it in his tweet “after erasing the origin they claim it as their own invention, attack original traditions as Superstition”.
As famous Indian American Author Rajiv Malhotra summarizes: “The article standardizes cardiac coherence breathing as Chinese, Hindu, Greek and various traditions as equal origins, and then modern West turns it into science”. Its time Indians in general and Hindus in particular should be vigilant and should have an academic mind set to respond to such misadventures to protect our own heritage and Dharma.
There is an argument by some Hindu liberals thinking “what the problem in it”? They think our knowledge is globalized by West in the same way we consume inventions of the West. But it’s a very naïve argument. West has created an eco system and mechanism in which their knowledge system is Well protected and patented by international norms. Unless West does not give a new name and fits into their framework native wisdom is not recognized in academia and media. Whereas Hindus were generous in sharing their health techniques freely from millennium never thought they will struggle in proving things which belong to them. In fact in a westernized framework of Yoga and other techniques Indian scholars, insiders and practitioners are blatantly ignored. So our own knowledge will be repackaged and exported back to us at an extra price and conditions.
Many of our practices are being called to be Biofeedback systems. According to WikipediaBiofeedback systems have been known in India and some other countries for millennia. Ancient Hindu practices like yoga and Pranayama (breathing techniques) are essentially biofeedback methods. Many yogis and sadhus have been known to exercise control over their physiological processes. In addition to recent research on Yoga, Paul Brunton, the British writer who travelled extensively in India, has written about many cases he has witnessed. (Hindu Council Of Australia)