Kanyarkali, also known as Desathukali, is an ancient Indian folk dance which is famous only in the Palakkad district of Kerala, India.
It is performed either in the premises of the temples of a female deity or on the “Tharasu” (areas for informal gatherings) of the houses in the villages.
Talking to NewsGram, Kunjiraman Nair, an artiste and a resident of Palakkad said,“It is a religious offering and also a prayer for the prosperity of the villages. It is more than just a folk dance.”
A vibrant and colourful folk dance, Kanyarkali was conceptualized during the time when Palakkad was under the constant threat of attack from the neighbouring district of Konganaadu. This was also when people had started pursuing martial arts. Thus, Kanyarkali is not simply a dance, it also incorporates elements of martial arts. Dance, comedy, and martial art skills are combined beautifully to add colour and vigour to this folk dance form.
This dance form is performed only by men, and women characters are represented through cross-dressing. The characters of this dance form come from the sections which were previously considered to be the lowest section of the society.
“Whenever they (the servant class) had a problem, they would go to their lord and narrate their problems and seek assistance. We depict this in a comical way in Kanyarkali,” Mohanan Pillai, another resident of Palakkad, told NewsGram.
The fast-paced steps are attuned to the various percussion instruments such as Chenda, Maddalam, Edathalam, and Chengala.
Kanyarkali is performed over a period of four consecutive nights in a kali-pandhal which is a circular tent supported by 56 poles and is extensively decorated with flowers and garlands, especially the flowers of the Gulmohar tree. It is preceded by four days of Edakkali and one day of Pandhalurakkam or rest. Then, the Arangu Kali or the stage performance starts.
The performances of each night carry a different name; namely – Ponnankali, Valloan, Aandikoothu and Malamakali, respectively. The four days of festivities are concluded by Thottamchollal or singing of lyrical praises of the goddess and Poovaral ceremony.
With no literature available regarding the dance form, the knowledge of Kanyarkali is transferred from one generation to another verbally. Therefore, there is a likelihood that this art form might gradually sink into extinction.
Advances in relations between Vietnam and India will help both countries resist Chinese expansion in Asia including the contested South China Sea, Asia scholars say.
India-Vietnam relations are growing again this week as Indian President Shri Ram Nath Kovind visits Vietnam Sunday through Tuesday. He was set to meet Vietnamese President Nguyen Phu Trong for closed-door talks.
The visit advances a long-standing, fast-improving friendship that began in the 1970s, when Vietnamese leaders tapped India to diversify foreign policy, and leapt forward in 2016 when the two sides entered a strategic comprehensive partnership. Now both worry about China.
“Given a shared apprehension of Chinese assertiveness, New Delhi seeks to bolster Hanoi’s capabilities to check China, to expand Indian influence in Southeast Asia as a counterweight to China’s growing footprint in South Asia,” said Sameer Lalwani, deputy director for U.S. think tank The Stimson Center’s South Asia program.
South China Sea dispute
Vietnam and four other governments dispute all or part of Beijing’s claim to about 90 percent of the South China Sea. The two sides got into two deadly ship clashes, in 1974 and 1988, and rammed each other’s boats in 2014. China cites historical documents to support its claims.
India, located west of the Indochinese peninsula, does not claim the sea that lies east of Vietnam.
But last year hundreds of Chinese and Indian troops faced off on a Himalayan plateau disputed by China and India’s ally Bhutan. India also resents China’s support for its territorial rival Pakistan. It has grown eager to help Australia, Japan and the United States patrol Asian seas where China has alarmed other countries by landfilling tiny islets, in some cases for military use.
Those countries want the 3.5 million-square-kilometer South China Sea open internationally instead of under increasing Chinese control.
“I think Vietnam wants India to play a more active role in the South Asian region because Vietnam knows that India is not so active in the quadrilateral, including the U.S., India, Australia and Japan,” said Trung Nguyen, director of the Center for International Studies at Ho Chi Minh University of Social Sciences and Humanities.
India and Vietnam held their first joint drill In the Bay Of Bengal in October to strengthen “working-level” relations, the Press Trust of India says. India has offered Vietnam $500 million in credit for arms purchases, as well, and proposed a South China Sea warning system able to send tsunami data to Vietnam.
Oil and gas exploration
Vietnam and India will use fuel exploration to consolidate their stand in the South China Sea, and with a potential profit, analysts forecast.
India and Vietnam already do “robust” trade, worth $12.8 billion in 2017-2018, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs says. Bilateral trade should reach $15 billion by 2020, the vice chairman of the Indian Business Chamber of Vietnam said last year. Indian investment in Vietnam was $2 billion then.
For the past four years, the overseas subsidiary of India’s government-run ONGC has worked with PetroVietnam Exploration Production Corp. to search for oil and gas in the South China Sea. China is probably watching warily, experts say.
Vietnam happens to need outside expertise and investment to find gas and oil off its long seacoast. Both domestic and foreign oil firms would earn money from any discoveries.
“The issue of oil is probably one of the larger political elephants in the room, so to speak,” said Maxfield Brown, senior associate with the business consultancy Dezan Shira & Associates in Ho Chi Minh City. “I’m sure that Vietnam is keen to find countries that are willing to invest in its natural resources and aren’t necessarily scared off by the threat of Chinese naval incursions.”
Spanish driller Repsol quit a Vietnamese-approved project in the South China Sea in March, apparently under pressure from China, media reports said then. Vietnam is now considering a $4.6 billion gas exploration project with ExxonMobil, local partner CNG Vietnam Joint Stock Co. says. China claims that site, as well.
“Vietnam is always trying to get them to do more exploration and India has been wary of holding onto blocks that aren’t productive or getting blocks that are in sensitive areas vis-a-vis China,” said Carl Thayer, professor emeritus with the University of New South Wales in Australia.
India has shown little fear to date, said Mohan Malik, professor in Asian security, Daniel K. Inouye Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies in the United States.
“Beijing has been protesting against joint Vietnamese-Indian oil exploration activities in the South China Sea for almost a decade, but New Delhi has refused to budge,” Malik said. “Through joint naval exercises and port calls at Vietnamese ports, New Delhi is signaling to Beijing that China’s growing naval expansion…would be countered by India’s naval outreach in the South China Sea.” (VOA)