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“When I got it done for my daughter, I did it because it was a custom to be followed“ said Sophie Johari to a newspaper. Aarefa Johari (29), journalist with Scroll.in and co-founder of SAHIYO, an organisation against FGM, was the unfortunate child of 7 years who had to go through the traumatic procedure of ‘khatna’. Her mother regrets not standing up for her daughter then and now supports her campaign on Facebook.
What is Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)?
According to WHO, Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Also according to their report more than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries and is mostly carried out on young girls between infancy and age 15.
Why is it practised?
In her book ‘The Hidden Face of Eve’, Nawal El-Saadawi, a Muslim victim of infibulation(a type of circumcision in which external genitalia is removed and the opening is sewn for bodily discharges) says,” Behind circumcision lies the belief that, by removing parts of girls’ external genitals organs, sexual desire is minimized. This permits a female who has reached the dangerous age of puberty and adolescence to protect her virginity and therefore her honor, with greater ease. Female circumcision is meant to preserve the chastity of young girls by reducing their desire for sexual intercourse.”
Debates on Male Circumcision vs. Female Genital Mutilation
Male circumcision has been a reality for hundreds of years in the name of tradition and religion for many Jewish and Islamic families. It has been a topic a global discussion that since circumcision is an unnecessary invasive surgery performed on un-consenting children, why is female genital mutilation criticized and male circumcision condoned. Aren’t both supposed to be equally wrong? Why is one illegal while the other is not?
The biggest difference between male and female circumcision is the amount of tissue that is being removed in the process along with the conditions in which the process is being carried out. Mostly in male circumcision, part or all of his foreskin is removed or the tissue(frenulum) connecting the foreskin to the penis is removed whereas in FGM, entire clitoris maybe removed. Circumcision is usually carried out by or in presence of a medical practitioner whereas FGM is an undercover activity performed in an unhygienic manner by untrained midwives. But this generalization may not be true in every case since incidents of deadly male circumcisions have been reported.
Some sociologists and ethicist even disagree with the argument of attributing FGM with patriarchy and say it over- simplifies the social and cultural causes of the process. Throughout much of Africa, it is practiced around puberty for both boys and girls alike.
Where is FGM practised?
Female Genital Mutilation is most prevalent in Africa, Egypt being the country with the highest number of cases. It is also practised in some parts of Middle East and Asia. In India, the practice is followed among the Dawoodi Bohra community, based primarily in states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. Bhendi bazaar district in Mumbai is where the major Bohra Muslim population lives.
Who are Bohra Muslims?
Bohra is a Gujarati-speaking caste originated from Kutch area of India. These were predominantly a business community, some of whom converted to Islam. There was a dispute in leadership in the 16thcentury AD and the ones who chose to accept Dawood ibn Qutubshah Burhanudeen as their leader came to be known as Dawoodi Bohras. Their spiritual leader is called as ‘Syedna’. The community is well reputed for being progressive traders and wealthy. The current Syedna has close ties with Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
The spokesperson of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin has been quoted “Bohra women should understand that our religion advocates the procedure and they should follow it without any argument” on the issue of FGM. As described by a previous article, even the current Syedna in a sermon at the Saifee Mosque in Bhendi Bazaar said “This act has to happen! If it is a man, it can be openly done but if it is a woman, it has to be done discreetly”. He did not explicitly mention the act of FGM and left his words open to interpretation.
In India many campaigns are being carried out online and on the grounds to put an end to this barbaric practice. One such effort is undertaken by Masooma Ranalvi and Aarefa Johari in the form of an online petition to Smt. Maneka Gandhi, Minister of Women and Child Development. More about their efforts can be read here.
You can reach the author @ShivangiTripati
Apple has acknowledged an issue where the "unlock with Apple Watch" feature might not work with its new iPhone 13 devices and promised to fix this issue with an upcoming software update. "You might see 'Unable to Communicate with Apple Watch' if you try to unlock your iPhone while wearing a face mask, or you might not be able to set up Unlock with Apple Watch," the iPhone maker said in the support document.
This issue will be fixed in an upcoming software update. Until the update is available, you can turn off Unlock with Apple Watch and use your passcode to unlock your iPhone 13. To turn off Unlock with Apple Watch, go to Settings > Face ID & Passcode.
Earlier, multiple users found that they cannot unlock their iPhone 13 with the Apple Watch and instead received an error. User Monzilla88 on Reddit first reported the issue to the subreddit r/AppleWatch. They stated that both their iPhone 13 Pro and Apple Watch SE are up to date with the newest iOS and watchOS updates.
"Whenever I try to enable unlock with Apple Watch on my phone I get an error saying "Unable to communicate with Apple Watch," they posted. Monzilla88 claimed that they had tried unpairing and repairing, hard resetting both devices, turning on and off passcodes, but not no avail, the report said. More than 20 other users self-reported the same problem, with others noting that the feature works fine on iOS 15 on older models of iPhone, including the iPhone 11 Pro Max and the iPhone X. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: iPhone 13, apple, watch, issue, update, face lock
The nursery rhyme Goosey Goosey Gander is filled with multiple meanings. It is another one of those rhymes believed to have emerged from the time of great persecution in England during the Reformation. It also holds a contemporary, colloquial meaning.
The original verse goes something like this:
Goosey goosey gander,
Whither shall I wander?
Upstairs and downstairs
And in my lady's chamber.
There I met an old man
Who wouldn't say his prayers,
So I took him by his left leg
And threw him down the stair (allnurseryrhymes.com)
There are other versions that deal with more specific ideas from which separate meanings have been interpreted.
Catholic priests being killed for continuing to keep the faith Image source: wikimedia commons
The primary interpretation is believed to be regarding the Catholic priests getting persecuted by King Henry VIII and his Protestant successors. Catholicism in England was frowned upon when King Henry established the Church of England. Anyone practicing Catholicism was put to death for treason. Many of the courtiers were hanged on this charge, and are noted in history as being martyrs for their faith.
Those who managed to practice their religion without being discovered did so in what was called a 'priest hole'. These were small rooms in the walls of a house that was covered by tapestry or a bookshelf. The required prayer instruments would be placed here, and the person would retire to this chamber at night, or at a time when they were not required elsewhere. The goose that wanders her mistress's house in the nursery rhyme discovers such a person, presumably a priest, and exposes him, or 'throws him down the stair'.
An alternative meaning to this rhyme originates from the lower class of England's population, a colloquial term used widely among the non-rich. The word 'goose' was used commonly to address a prostitute, and here, could possibly refer to a woman who has acquired an STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection). "Whither shall I wander?/ Upstairs and downstairs/ And in my lady's chamber," could be a reference to the spread of an infection that a man acquires from such a woman, which causes him to be ostracised from his community. It was quite common in England for an upper-classman to bed a lower-class woman in the society of those days.
It is rather interesting that such a practice would turn into folklore, and in turn, become a rhyme sung by little children all over the world. It has certain amusing images no doubt, but not without raising questions. England of the times of Reformation was certainly a dark place, with a terribly dark heritage.
Keywords: Heritage, Rhymes, Folklore, England, Reformation
Many individuals struggle with psychological distress at home because most of us spend the whole day doing nothing. Being trapped inside our homes may seem inconvenient, but if you have the time and patience, the time spent indoors offers the ideal chance to learn new abilities. Whether you want to transform your body by following a daily routine with the help of millions of tutorials available across platforms, or you want to learn coding, cooking, a new language, here are some skills you can learn from the comfort of your home.
- A new language: Learning a new language online from the comfort of one's own home is simple and relatively inexpensive, thanks to apps such as Duolingo and Busuu. Gaining knowledge of a new language improves your communication skills. It allows you to communicate with a more significant number of individuals and open new doors, and expand your perspectives. Although most of us cannot travel due to COVID-19 restrictions, do not allow that to stop you from upskilling yourself.
Gaining knowledge of a new language improves your communication skills. | Photo by Jason Leung on Unsplash
- Writing: When it comes to skills, writing is one of the essential ones you may possess. It is the primary mode of communication for most people, particularly in this day and age with the internet, texting, and social media. Writing also has the added benefit of improving your public speaking abilities. Books, online courses, videos, and, of course, actual writing practice are all excellent resources for learning how to enhance your writing skills.
When it comes to skills, writing is one of the essential ones you may possess. | Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash
- Programming: Programming is one of the highest-paying professions available that does not require the completion of a Bachelor's degree. So even if you didn't pursue a degree in computer science in college, you may still benefit from this skill. Understanding the fundamentals of programming allows you to assist in the launch of an application, the optimization of a website for search engines, and the creation or editing of content. Many online platforms are available to assist you in learning to code. Recently, I also enrolled for C/C++ programming on Internshala.
Programming is one of the highest-paying professions available that does not require the completion of a Bachelor's degree. | Photo by Danial Igdery on Unsplash
ALSO READ: Which Is More Important- Degree or Skill?
- Typing Skill: Learning to type quickly and correctly will benefit you in a variety of ways throughout your life, and it should be regarded as a fundamental skill for anybody who intends to work with computers in the future. There are many websites that provide classes to help you learn the fundamentals, and then, after you have mastered the fundamentals, more advanced courses to help you improve your abilities further.
Learning to type quickly and correctly will benefit you in a variety of ways throughout your life. | Photo by Burst on Unsplash
- Video Editing: Video is unquestionably the most powerful marketing and promotional medium available for music, goods, services, news, and educational purposes. There is a strong possibility that video editing may become the next big thing. At the moment, video production does not need large financial investments; just having access to a computer is all that is required if you possess the right video editing skills. Besides YouTube, which has a large number of detailed videos on video editing, you may discover courses on Udemy and Lynda that can assist you in learning the necessary skills
There is a strong possibility that video editing may become the next big thing. | Photo by Ryan Snaadt on Unsplash
Another thing you may do when you're stuck at home is work on your personal development. We should all strive to improve ourselves as individuals. Here are some ways through which can understand the Significance Of Self-Love And How To Nurture It.
Keywords: Skills, home, COVID, pandemic, coding, language, typing, self-love, writing