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Mayan, Sumerian, and Mexican: The Untold Link and Similarities to Ancient India

Elephant bar on the temples of Yucatan city holds a strong resemblance to the Hindu text of Ramayana, the elephant, and deeds of King Rama of Ayodhya

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Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons

Ancient India, one of the world’s earliest urban civilisation has crossed several centuries. It had a long-lived civilisation. Many shreds of evidence have been found that culture of Ancient India has similarities with Sumerian, Mexican, and Mayan culture.

Similarities: Indian Sumerian-

Evidence has been found that there was a social interaction between the Indus valley and Sumeria. Indian teak was found in the ruins of Ur(Mugheir), which was the capital of the Sumerian kings in the IV millennium B.B. and the other is that the word Sindhu or muslin is mentioned in an ancient Babylonian list of clothing.

The occurrence of ‘s’ in the word proves that this muslin did not go to Mesopotamia via Persia, for then ‘s’ would have become ‘h’ in Persian months, as the name of this country, derived from the river Sind. Therefore, muslin went directly by sea from the Tamil Coast to the Persian Coast and the Babylonian word Sindhu is not derived from the name of the river but from the old Dravidian word, ‘sindi’, which is still found in Tulu and Canarese, and means ‘a piece of cloth’ and represented by the Tamil word ”sindu”, a flag.

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Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-Daro, Wikimedia Commons

Harappa was known as Meluha to the Akkadians. Like the evolution of state-building in Mesopotamia, its focus was land- based, but it also engaged in significant sea-going trade with Gulf. The Sargon I text refers to Meluhha boats as being large cargo vessels.

Similarities: Ancient India and Mexico-

Mexican art and architecture display a combination of cultural and social themes, such as the ancient Indian civilisations. Mexican indigenous art before the invasion of Spanish people achieved a remarkable level of development and sophistication. Created by Indian with virtually no outside influence.

Most Mexican indigenous art before the arrival of the Spanish was inspired by religion. The gods of the indigenous Indians dominated every facet of Indian life, and many Indian works of art were created as offerings to the gods. The Olmecs, who developed the first civilised culture in Mexico between 1300 and 400 B.C., were also the country’s finest artists. They made jewellery and ceramics but are best known for their stone carvings. Huge shapes of human heads, discovered mostly in the state of Veracruz, are the earliest portraits that remain of these ancient people. These heads are believed to have the honour of the Olmec rulers.

SSA41434.JPG
Teotihuacan, Wikimedia Commons

The Olmecs pyramids began as a mound of earth covered with rough stones. The pyramids served several functions. They were temples where priests could pray and perform rituals for the gods . They were also symbolic mountains meant to bring people closer to Heaven.
Teotihuacan, located to the northeast of Mexico City, is another fine example of an ancient Indian city, with extraordinary pyramids, temples, and roads made for the kings, mentioned a book by Gene D. Matlock

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Similarities: Mayan dynasty and Ancient India-

Chichen Itza 3.jpg
Chichen Itza, Wikimedia Commons

Elephants are featured in Mayan sculptures, although the mammoth supposedly was extinct during the time of the Mayan civilisation. One of the oldest artistic works found dates back to 30,000 B.C., done on an elephant bone. In March 1952, Mexican pre-historians Maldonado Koerdell and Lis Aveleyra found at Ixtapan a complete skeleton of an elephant with the stone artefacts, including two spearheads between the ribs of an elephant and nearby, the remnants of ‘Tepexpan Man’. the radiocarbon date was determined to be at about 10,000 B.C. , Indian myths and legends tell about an animal similar to the mammoth.

In Indian life, we find tales about monsters and heroes that effectively describe an animal very similar to the mammoth. Elephants are very common in India and played an important role as the elephant gods, Ganesha, in the Hindu religion. Artefacts featuring elephants in a seated position posed as tough praying have been uncovered as stone pipes in mounds in North America, elephant bar on temples in the Yucatan, Mexico and in Copan, Honduras. This elephant bar holds a strong resemblance to the Hindu text of Ramayana, the elephant, and deeds of King Rama of Ayodhya are featured in the creation myth. Architectural stone carvings in Hindu temples of India and the extensive Mayan temple ruins of Chichen Itza in the northeastern Yucatan state of Mexico have similar stone carvings.

– prepared by Akanksha Sharma of NewsGram. Twitter: Akanksha4117

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Here’s how Carbon Footprint Can be Reduced in India

Carbon footprint in India can be reduced by 20%

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Carbon global warming

BY VISHAL GULATI

The report focuses on the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the two most carbon-intensive products — passenger cars and residential buildings.

Producing and using materials more efficiently to build passenger cars and residential homes could cut carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions between 2016 and 2060 by up to 25 gigaton across the Group of Seven (G7) member states, the International Resource Panel (IRP) finds in a summary for policymakers released here on Wednesday.

This is more than double the annual emissions from all the world’s coal-fuelled power plants.

The IRP finds that emissions from the production of materials like metals, wood, minerals and plastics more than doubled over the 20-year period to 2015, accounting for almost one-quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions.

Carbon products cars
Majority of carbon-intensive products are used in manufacturing cars. Pixabay

It warns that without boosting material efficiency, it will be almost impossible and substantially more expensive to keep global heating below 1.5 degrees Celsius — the more ambitious of the two Paris climate targets.

The IRP Summary for Policymakers, Resource Efficiency and Climate Change: Material Efficiency Strategies for a Low-Carbon Future, prepared at the request of the G7, is the first comprehensive scientific analysis estimating total cuts in greenhouse gas emissions in homes and cars that can be achieved through material efficiency.

Together, the construction and manufacturing sectors are responsible for an estimated 80 per cent of emissions generated by the first use of materials.

Using strategies and technologies that already exist, G7 countries could save up to 170 million tons of carbon emissions from residential homes in 2050.

India could save 270 million tons, and China could save 350 million tons in 2050 in this same sector.

If we look at the full lifecycle of cars, material efficiency strategies could help G7 countries, China and India reduce GHG emissions by up to 450 million tons each in 2050. These reductions can help countries stay within their carbon budget.

Extending the lifetime of products, reusing components, substituting or using less material, and making more intensive use of materials by, for example, ride-sharing, are all strategies that G7 countries could implement today to tackle global warming.

“Climate mitigation efforts have traditionally focused on enhancing energy efficiency and accelerating the transition to renewables. While this is still key, this report shows that material efficiency can also deliver big gains,” UN Environment Executive Director Inger Andersen said.

The IRP finds that the carbon footprint of the production of materials for cars could be cut by up to 70 per cent in G7 countries, and 60 per cent in China and 50 per cent in India in 2050.

The largest emission savings from passenger vehicles come from a change in how people use cars, like car-pooling and car-sharing, and a move away from large SUVs.

Greenhouse gases carbon
The construction and manufacturing sectors are responsible for an estimated 80 per cent of emissions generated by the first use of materials. Pixabay

The report also shows that greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials for residential buildings in the G7, China and India could be reduced between 50 and 80 per cent in 2050 with greater material efficiency.

The most promising strategies include more intensive use of space e.g. reducing demand for floor space, switching out concrete and masonry for sustainably produced wood, improving recycling, and building lighter homes using less carbon-intensive steel, cement and glass.

Reducing demand for floor space in the G7 by up to 20 per cent could lower greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials by up to 73 per cent in 2050.

Shared homes, smaller units, and downsizing when children move out lead to these big reductions.

The cuts revealed by the report are on top of emission savings generated by the decarbonisation of electricity supply, the electrification of home energy use, and the shift towards electric and hybrid vehicles.

Many of these emission reductions will only be possible if countries create enabling policy environments and incentives, the report says.

UN Secretary-General Antonio Gutteres wants countries to increase the ambition of their climate targets at the ongoing UN climate change negotiations (COP25) that entered its final stage in this Spanish capital.

Also Read- 86 Fashion Companies Partner with Political Leaders to Deliver Climate Action

The IRP report urges policymakers to integrate material efficiency into their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to set higher emission reduction targets that will limit the damage from global warming.

Currently, only Japan, India, China, and Turkey mention resource efficiency, resources management, material efficiency, circular economy or consumption side instruments as explicit mitigation measures in their NDCs. (IANS)