Thursday November 23, 2017

Memory of a heart attack gets stored in genes through epigenetic changes: Study

A new study in London has found that the memory of a heart attack is saved in genes itself as a permanent change

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The heart attack brings about activation of certain genes which stay as a permanent memory in genes. Pixabay
  • CVD includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease, angina, heart attack, congenital heart disease and stroke
  • The results of the study showed that there are many epigenetic changes in individuals who had experienced a heart attack
  • Several of these changes are in genes that are linked to cardiovascular disease

London, Sept 18, 2016: The memory of a heart attack gets stored in genes through epigenetic changes- chemical modifications of DNA that turn our genes on or off, a study has found.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which are the leading causes of death worldwide are influenced by both heredity and environmental factors.

CVD includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease, angina, heart attack, congenital heart disease and stroke.

The study examined epigenetic changes- that can lead to the development of various diseases- in people who have had a previous heart attack.

Cyanotic heart disease. Wikimedia
Cyanotic heart disease. Wikimedia

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“During a heart attack, the body signals by activating certain genes. This mechanism protects the tissue during the acute phase of the disease and restores the body after the heart attack. It is, therefore, likely that epigenetic changes are also associated a heart attack”, said Asa Johansson, a researcher at the Uppsala University in Sweden.

The results of the study showed that there are many epigenetic changes in individuals who had experienced a heart attack.

Several of these changes are in genes that are linked to cardiovascular disease.

However, it was not possible to determine whether these differences had contributed to the development of the disease, or if they live on as a memory of gene activation associated with the heart attack, the researchers said.

“We hope that our new results should contribute to increasing the knowledge of the importance of epigenetic in the clinical picture of a heart attack, which in the long run could lead to better drugs and treatments”, Johansson added.

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For the study, the team took blood samples from the northern Sweden population health study. Individuals with a history of a CVD were identified in the cohort. It included individuals with hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, thrombosis and cardiac arrhythmia.

The results were published in the journal Human Molecular Genetics. (IANS)

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Cheap anti-inflammatory Drug for Common Cold can Stop Spread of Cancer, say Japanese Researchers

The study conducted using animal model showed that injecting flufenamic acid a much cheaper cold drug into cancerous bladder cells can suppress the cells

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Representational image. Pixabay

Tokyo, October 18, 2016: A non-steroid, anti-inflammatory drug used for treating common cold has the potential to suppress the spread of bladder cancers as well as reduce their resistance to anti-cancer drugs in mice, Japanese researchers have found.

Bladder cancer — the seventh most common cancer in males worldwide — can be grouped into two types: non-muscle-invasive cancer, which has a five-year survival rate of 90 percent, and muscle-invasive cancer, which have poor prognoses.

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The latter are normally treated with such anti-cancer drugs as cisplatin, but tend to become chemo-resistant and, thus, spread to organs such as the lungs and liver, as well as bone, the study said.

The study conducted using animal model showed that injecting flufenamic acid — a much cheaper cold drug — into cancerous bladder cells can suppress the cells’ invasive activities and restore the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs.

Cheap Drug for Common Cold can Stop Spread of Cancer. Click To Tweet

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“The study could pave the way for medical institutions to use flufenamic acid which has unexpectedly been proven to be effective at fighting cancers,” said Shinya Tanaka from Hokkaido University in Japan.

In the study, using rats the team created a xenograft bladder cancer model and discovered a three to 25-fold increase of the metabolic enzyme aldo-keto reductase 1C1 (AKR1C1).

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It was also identified for the first time that AKR1C1 enhances tumour-promoting activities and proved the enzyme blocks the effectiveness of cisplatin and other anti-cancer drugs, which can be inhibited by flufenamic acid, the researchers concluded in the paper published in the journal Scientific Reports. (IANS)