Tuesday August 20, 2019
Home India Nations and t...

Nations and their Moon Missions

The most notable finding of the mission was the presence of water molecules on moon which in turn has revived the interest on moon missions

0
//
Chandrayaan-2, Moon, India
Embarking on its second voyage to the moon on July 15, an Indian spacecraft and rover would land near the lunar south pole. Pixabay

It was in 1950s when mission to the moon caught the fancy of several countries. But in sometime they were abandoned. In fact, the moon itself became an abandoned planet, said M. Annadurai, former Director, U.R. Rao Satellite Centre (URSC), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

Lately, the moon is back into trend again. And this could be credited to India’s first moon mission Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 which found water molecules on the moon, Annadurai, who was the key man behind that mission, told IANS.

The former Soviet Union (now Russia) and the US had undertaken several moon missions since 1958.

However, it was the Soviet mission in September 1959 that succeeded first when its lunar impactor carried by its rocket Luna landed on the moon’s surface. The next month Russia followed it by a flyby mission.

After that, there were several failed attempts made by Russia and the US to land on the moon.

In July 1964, the US achieved success with its impactor landed on the moon surface. The spacecraft Ranger-7 was carried by its rocket Atlas LV-3 Agena B.

In 1966, Russia’s Luna-9 became the first spacecraft to land on the moon. The same year, the US made a successful landing with its lander on the moon.

India, Spacecraft, Moon
A spectator holds an Indian flag after a mission of Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-2, with the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle on board was called back because of a technical snag in Sriharikota, India, July 15, 2019. VOA

The first crewed mission to the moon was by the US in December 1968. The spacecraft Apollo-8 orbited the moon and returned back to Earth.

The first human moon landing mission was launched by the US on July 16, 1969 with Neil Armstrong becoming the first man to step on the moon on July 21, 1969.

Later, Japan sent up its lunar mission in 1990, followed by the European Space Agency in 2003.

Also Read: Most Parents are Obstacles to Teens’ Independence: Survey

Asian giant China started its moon mission in 2007 with its orbiter. The country landed its rover on the moon in 2013. Earlier this year, China landed its spacecraft on the far side of the moon.

On its part, India began its moon mission on October 22, 2008 with its spacecraft Chandrayaan-1. The country also landed its Moon Impact Probe on November 14, 2008, thereby becoming the fourth country to have a touch down on the moon surface.

The most notable finding of the mission was the presence of water molecules on moon which in turn has revived the interest on moon missions. (IANS)

Next Story

Astronauts Can Be Shielded From Radiation On Moon: NASA

How NASA plans to shield astronauts from radiation on the moon

0
NASA
NASA plans to develop a new technology that can save astronauts from radiation on Moon. Pixabay

As NASA plans to return astronauts to the moon and ultimately send humans to Mars, teams across the space agency are working to build solutions for protecting the travellers from harmful radiation.

Some teams are developing technology such as wearable vests and devices that add mass and electrically charged surfaces that deflect radiation.

When NASA sends humans to the moon again, it would want them to stay there, unlike the Apollo mission 50 years ago. But long-time exposure to space radiation may raise health risks, including cancer. Developing solutions for shielding astronauts from space radiation is, therefore, very crucial.

NASA
Radiation on the Moon is hazardous to human health and it has long-term health problems. Pixabay

Scientists and engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center are developing a way to make use of the mass on board the Orion spacecraft to protect the crew who venture into deep space.

NASA said Orion will be equipped with a radiation-sensing instrument integrated into the vehicle called the Hybrid Electronic Radiation Assessor (HERA), to provide a warning if crew members need to take shelter in case of a radiation event such as a solar flare.

To protect themselves, astronauts will position themselves in the central part of the crew module largely reserved for storing items they will need during the flight and create a shelter using the stowage bags on board.

Anywhere the astronauts go, the scientists at NASA’s Johnson Space Centre in Houston will keep watch over their space environment.

During a future Artemis mission, if a solar radiation squall were to occur while astronauts are beyond earth’s magnetic bubble, they might tell the crew to build a temporary shelter.

“Our strategy in space is to make use of whatever mass is available,” Johnson scientist Kerry Lee said in a statement on Thursday.

NASA
Earth’s view from moon’s surface. Pixabay

“We’re redistributing mass to fill in areas that are thinly shielded and getting crew members closer to the heavily shielded areas,” Lee added.

The more mass between the crew and radiation, the more likely that dangerous particles will deposit their energy before reaching the crew.

On the moon, astronauts could pile lunar soil, or regolith, over their shelters, taking advantage of their environment’s natural shielding materials.

NASA
Satellite captures Moon’s view from Earth’s orbit. Pixabay

“It’s unlikely that we’re going to be able to fly dedicated radiation-shielding mass,” Lee said.

“Every item you fly will have to be multi-purpose,” he added.

Also Read: Uhuru Kenyatta in Barbados, Holds Talks with Prime Minister Mia Mottley

US President Donald Trump’s administration earlier directed NASA to return humans to the moon by 2024 and then go forward to Mars. NASA has named this programme “Artemis” in honour of Apollo’s twin sister in Greek mythology, the Moon Goddess.

NASA last month said that the Orion crew capsule is ready for its first unmanned trip to the moon. (IANS)