Thursday June 21, 2018

New experimental HIV vaccine offers hope

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New York: A vaccine regimen that first primes the immune system and then boosts it to increase the response could ultimately prove to be the strategy for protecting against the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection, a new research suggests.

The study showed that the experimental “prime-boost” vaccine regimen provided complete protection to non-human primates from becoming infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus similar to HIV that infects the primates.

These results have now encouraged scientists to study the efficacy of the vaccine on a human study that is currently enrolling 400 volunteers in the US and Rwanda, with sites in South Africa, Uganda and Thailand opening soon.

“We are very encouraged by the results of this preclinical HIV vaccine study, and the findings lead to a clear path forward for evaluating this HIV vaccine candidate in humans,” said lead author Dan Barouch, professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School.

For the study, non-human primates (NHP) were first given an adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vectored vaccine to prime the immune system, and then a boost of a purified HIV envelope protein intended to enhance the immune system over time.

This approach is intended to increase both the magnitude of the immune response and the overall protection against subsequent viral challenge.

“Despite great progress in HIV treatments, HIV remains one of the greatest global health threats of our time with millions continuing to be infected each year. Our ultimate goal is to develop a vaccine that prevents HIV in the first place,” said Paul Stoffels from the Johnson & Johnson, which collaborated on the research.

The study was published in the online edition of the journal ‘Science’. (IANS)

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Breast cells may behave menace by High Vitamin D

Higher levels of Vitamin D among women

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High vitamin D harming Breast Cancer, Pixabay

Higher levels of Vitamin D among women may reduce their risk of developing breast cancer post menopause, claimed a new study.

The study found that women with blood levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (OH) — the main form of vitamin D in blood — above 60 ng/ml (nanograms per millilitre) had one-fifth the risk of breast cancer compared to those with less than 20 ng/ml.

 Vitamin D levels in blood were measured during study visits.
Higher levels of Vitamin D among women may reduce their risk of developing breast cancer post menopause, pixabay

Thus, researchers from the University of California-San Diego determined that the minimum healthy level of 25(OH) in blood plasma should be 60 ng/ml, instead of the earlier recommended higher than the 20 ng/ml.

“Increasing Vitamin D blood levels substantially above 20 ng/ml appears to be important for the prevention of breast cancer,” said lead author Sharon McDonnell from GrassrootsHealth, a non-profit public health research organisation.

Also Read: British researchers discover a protein that can control spread of breast cancer in body

The study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, analysed data from two randomised clinical trials with 3,325 combined women and a prospective study involving 1,713 women with average age of 63.

Participants were free of cancer at enrollment and were followed for a mean period of four years. Vitamin D levels in blood were measured during study visits.

“This study was limited to postmenopausal breast cancer. Further research is needed on whether high 25(OH)D levels might prevent premenopausal breast cancer,” said Cedric F. Garland from UC-San Diego. (IANS.)

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