Wednesday July 17, 2019
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Night Shifts, Jet Leg Disrupt Rhythm of Genes

A University of Surrey study has found that the daily rhythms of our genes are disrupted when sleep times shift

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Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

For those who work in night shifts or miss on sleep owing to heavy air travel, it is time to set the clock right to get rhythm of your genes back in shape.

A University of Surrey study has found that the daily rhythms of our genes are disrupted when sleep times shift.

“This research may help us understand the negative health outcomes associated with shift work, jet lag and other conditions in which the rhythms of our genes are disrupted,” said professor Derk-Jan Dijk from the sleep research centre at University of Surrey, England.

Researchers placed 22 participants on a 28-hour day in a controlled environment without a natural light-dark cycle.

As a result, their sleep-wake cycle was delayed by four hours each day.

Genes are a part of DNA/RNA.
Genes- A segment of DNA. Pixabay

The team then collected blood samples to measure the participants’ rhythms of gene expression.

During this disruption of sleep timing, there was a six-fold reduction in the number of genes that displayed a circadian rhythm (internal body clock with 24-hour cycle), said the study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Over 97 percent of rhythmic genes became out of sync with mistimed sleep and this really explains why we feel so bad during jet lag, or if we have to work irregular shifts,” said co-author Simon Archer from the school of biosciences and medicine.

Also Read: Genes Determining Hair Colour To Boost Cancer Research

The study also revealed which genes may be regulated by sleep-wake cycles and which are regulated by central body clocks.

This finding provides new clues about sleep’s function as separate from the circadian clock.

“The results also imply that sleep-wake schedules can be used to influence rhythmicity in many biological processes, which may be very relevant for conditions in which our body clocks are altered, such as in aging,” added professor Derk-Jan Dijk. (IANS)

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Third-Hand Smoke can Harm Respiratory System by Changing Gene Expressions: Study

A total of 382 genes among approximately 10,000 genes in the data set were significantly over-expressed and seven other genes were under-expressed, according to the study

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third-hand smoke
The nasal membrane tissue is similar to those in the bronchus, so the researchers suggested that the damage could go deeper into the respiratory system. Flickr

The hazards of second-hand smoke are well-known. Now, scientists have found even third-hand smoke (THS) could do harm to one’s respiratory health by changing gene expressions.

The study published in the latest edition of JAMA Network Open this week showed that the third-hand smoke can damage epithelial cells in the respiratory system, coercing those cells into a fight for survival, Xinhua news agency reported. THS results when the exhaled smoke and smoke emanating from the burning cigarettes settle on surfaces like clothing, hair and furniture.

The researchers from University of California, Riverside (UCR) obtained nasal scrapes from four healthy non-smoking women aged 27 to 49 years, who were randomized to receive the clean air exposure first and then THS exposure for three hours. The researchers extracted Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) from them to examine their gene expression changes.

third-hand smoke
Also, the researchers have found that the inhalation altered pathways associated with oxidative stress that may cause cancer in the long term. Flickr

A total of 382 genes among approximately 10,000 genes in the data set were significantly over-expressed and seven other genes were under-expressed, according to the study. “The THS inhalation for only three hours significantly altered gene expression in the nasal epithelium of healthy non-smokers,” said the paper’s first author Giovanna Pozuelos, a graduate student at UCR.

ALSO READ: Researchers Discover Extremely Harmful Levels of Toxins Found in Enamelled Decoration of Beer and Wine Bottles

Also, the researchers have found that the inhalation altered pathways associated with oxidative stress that may cause cancer in the long term. The nasal membrane tissue is similar to those in the bronchus, so the researchers suggested that the damage could go deeper into the respiratory system.

“Many smoking adults think, ‘I smoke outside, so my family inside the house will not get exposed.’ But smokers carry chemicals like nicotine indoors with their clothes,” said Prue Talbot, a professor at UCR, who led the research. “It’s important to understand people that the THS is real and potentially harmful,” said Talbot. (IANS)