Thursday April 2, 2020

Obesity affects males more than females: Study

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fat man holding a measurement tape

By NewsGram Staff Writer

Obesity may be tougher on male immune systems than females, suggests a study led by an Indian-American researcher.

Kanakadurga Singer, assistant professor in pediatrics at the University of Michigan, found that high-fat diets reprogram blood stem cells in male mice, promoting metabolic disease.

“Men and women have very different cardiovascular and diabetes risk. Male mice are often studied because their risk for developing these diseases is higher,” Singer explained.

For this, researchers compared how mice from each sex reacted to high-fat diets.

They found that in young reproductive-age female mice who were fed a high-fat diet which made them obese, the body produced only a mild inflammatory white blood cell response.

In male mice, however, diet-induced obesity made more active inflammatory white blood cells and enhanced their progenitors.

This, in turn, made the male mice more prone to higher blood glucose and insulin levels.

“We found that obesity did not trigger inflammation in female mice the way it did in males,” Singer added.

The research helps in providing the foundation for future clinical studies exploring how these differences impact diseases such as diabetes.

“Our research highlights the need to broaden clinical investigations and animal studies to include both males and females to better guide new interventions,” Singer said.

The study was published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

(With inputs from IANS)

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Breathing Dirty Air Can Make You More Prone To Diabetes, Obesity and other Chronic illnesses: Study

The researchers looked at data from air-monitoring stations near the subjects' addresses to calculate their previous-year exposure to ozone (which forms when emissions from vehicles are exposed to sunlight), particulate matter (hazardous particles suspended in the air), and nitrous oxide (a toxic byproduct of burning fossil fuel)

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Pollution
Worldwide, according to research published this month, air pollution kills 8.8 million people annually - more than smoking or war. Pixabay

Breathing dirty air takes a heavy toll on gut bacteria, boosting risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic illnesses, a new study revealed.

The study, published in the journal Environment International, is the first to link air pollution to changes in the structure and function of the human gut microbiome – the collection of trillions of microorganisms residing within us. The research found, with young adults exposed to higher levels of ozone showing less microbial diversity and more of certain species associated with obesity and disease.

“We know from previous research that air pollutants can have a whole host of adverse health effects,” said study senior author Tanya Alderete, Assistant Professor at University of Colorado Boulder in the US. “The takeaway from this paper is that some of those effects might be due to changes in the gut,” Alderete added.

Worldwide, according to research published this month, air pollution kills 8.8 million people annually – more than smoking or war. While much attention has been paid to respiratory health, Alderete’s previous studies have shown pollution can also impair the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar and influence risk for obesity.

Other research has shown visits to emergency rooms for gastrointestinal problems spike on high pollution days, and youth with high exposure to traffic exhaust have greater risk of developing Crohn’s disease. To investigate just what might be going on inside the gut, the research team used cutting-edge whole-genome sequencing to analyse fecal samples from 101 young adults in Southern California.

The researchers looked at data from air-monitoring stations near the subjects’ addresses to calculate their previous-year exposure to ozone (which forms when emissions from vehicles are exposed to sunlight), particulate matter (hazardous particles suspended in the air), and nitrous oxide (a toxic byproduct of burning fossil fuel).

Of all the pollutants measured, ozone had the greatest impact on the gut by far, accounting for about 11 per cent of the variation seen between study subjects – more of an impact than gender, ethnicity or even diet. Those with higher exposure to ozone also had less variety of bacteria living in their gut, according to the study.

“This is important since lower (bacteria) diversity has been linked with obesity and Type 2 diabetes,” noted Alderete. Subjects with higher exposure to ozone also had a greater abundance of a specific species called Bacteroides caecimuris.

Air Pollution, Global Warming, Mask, Doctor, Protection
Breathing dirty air takes a heavy toll on gut bacteria, boosting risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic illnesses, a new study revealed. Pixabay

That’s important, because some studies have associated high levels of Bacteroides with obesity. In all, the researchers identified 128 bacterial species influenced by increased ozone exposure. Some may impact the release of insulin, the hormone responsible for ushering sugar into the muscles for energy.

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Other species can produce metabolites, including fatty acids, which help maintain gut barrier integrity and ward off inflammation, the researchers said. “Ozone is likely changing the environment of your gut to favour some bacteria over others, and that can have health consequences,” Alderete concluded. (IANS)