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In all Caribbean academic conferences, seminars, webinars, panel presentations and roundtables, there are few Indo-Caribbean researchers, scholars, and intellectuals. Given that they are a numerical minority in the region, they are still almost invisible because they just do not appear in the audience or on the stage.
But you do see these university “educated” people from the Humanities and Social Sciences in all-Indian Facebook, WhatsApp, and email chat groups and communal blogs. They speak in safe spaces such as private gatherings and in Indian Diaspora Conferences usually held in communal venues such as the NCIC Divali Nagar, rather than in university auditoriums.
They hardly appear in large multi-ethnic fora dominated by non-Indians and are incapable or too scared to debate with Afro intellectuals on race and ethnicity. Perhaps they have taken a decision to self-surrender into silence and invisibility because they have been shouted down too many times. Their gravest mortal fear is to be called “racist”, so they avoid any semblance of researching, writing, or talking in public spaces about Indian identity. Not unexpected, they fear talking or writing about institutionalized discrimination and systemic racism against their own Indian group, even when they themselves are victims.
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If these Postgraduates, ABDs (All but dissertation), PhDs, and Professors do appear in multi-racial gatherings, they are apologetic about being Indo-Caribbean, assume a Black persona, and viciously attack fellow Indians and Indian identity to prove to Others that “I am not one of the Indian” or “I am not one like them Indian”. If they do appear in multi-ethnic conferences, it is to talk about their research on the past (indentureship, 1838-1917), not the present; talk about past oppression by Whites, not about present institutionalized discrimination by Blacks.
It is a type of Saheb Babu or Uncle Tom personality, the latter drawn from Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) in which the title character is an enslaved African American. In an attempt to cope with threats, Tom becomes passive, submissive, subservient, and appeasing to his master. This type of Indian academic, teaching in Black-dominated (community) colleges and universities, give up or hide their ethnic outlook, traits and practices in order to be accepted into the mainstream.
The theory of multicultural psychology explains ethnic minority behavior as a means of coping with threats, hostility, and subjugation by dominant individuals and groups. [Multicultural psychology explains all aspects of human behavior as they occur in settings where people of different racial and cultural backgrounds encounter each other (Peony Elyn Fhagen, 2010)].
As ethnic minorities, Saheb Babus and Uncle Toms even identify with hegemonic group members and adopt their thoughts, views, expressions, and behavior. They become docile, non-assertive, and non-interrogative as a survival technique for recruitment, permanent employment (tenure), promotion, peace, and self-preservation as well as to maintain good, friendly relations with their aggressors and superiors to avoid retaliation.
Society for Caribbean Studies 44th Annual Conference
One case in point is the current six-day, online Society for Caribbean Studies 44th Annual Conference (5th – 10th 2021). Of about 90 presenters, there is only ONE (1) Indo-Caribbean academic: Ms. Shalima Mohammed. Based in Trinidad and Tobago, Mohammed is the only intellectual from the entire Caribbean, including Guyana and Suriname, and their Diasporas. Indeed, she is the only Indo-Caribbean from the entire Western Hemisphere to present a research paper as (a) an Indo-Caribbean, and (b) on an Indo-Caribbean topic. Her presentation is/was entitled: “Exploitation: Re-imagining the migrant experience” based on her fieldwork on Indo-Guyanese migrants in Trinidad. Mohammed qualifies as a scholar mainly because she contextualizes her field and library research in a theoretical framework, lacking in so many presentations and publications by PhDs and Professors.
This is her brief biodata: SHALIMA MOHAMMED (Trinidad and Tobago) obtained her Master’s degree in Business Psychology from Franklin University in Ohio in the USA, graduating with a GPA of 4.0. She is a strong advocate for health and wellness practices based on Traditional and/or Alternative Healing. Mohammed has presented research papers at the University of the West Indies (UWI) in Trinidad, at the Anton de Kom University of Suriname, and in Indore, Madhya Pradesh in India.
In this Society for Caribbean Studies (SCS) 44th Annual Conference with about 90 presenters, where are the other Indo-Caribbean Postgraduates, ABDs (All but dissertation), PhDs, and Professors from the Humanities and Social Sciences? Some of them find time to write weekly newspaper columns but refuse to present their thoughts, ideas and research findings at conferences to be peer-reviewed by international scholars
The theory of multicultural psychology explains why academics of the dominant Afro-Caribbean group feel empowered and self-confident to present papers on racism, slavery, C.L.R James, Kambule, Ghana, Creole Poetry, Kamau Brathwaite, Haiti, ex-slaves, reparations, reggae/dancehall, Aimé Césaire, Emancipation, Apprenticeship, Black Spectacle, Black Bodies, Carnival, Soca and Afro-Caribbean identity. SEE the following non-Indian presenters and their topic presentations:
- COMMISSIONG, NATASHA: Race and Gender-Based Violence in the Caribbean.
- PETLEY, Christer: ‘The Baptist War in Jamaica: Rethinking the Politics of Slave Resistance and Rebellion.
- HØGSBJERG, CHRIST: C.L.R. James and South Wales.
- FRANCIS, KEON: Kambule: Bois Bataille! Re-enactment, Social consciousness and Power in Contemporary Trinidad.
- ETHERINGTON, BEN: ‘Hie, Bro. Mahbunta!’: On the Beginnings of Creole Poetry in Print in the Anglophone Caribbean.
- ZIMBLER, JARAD: ‘A Caribbean Presence in Africa: Kamau Brathwaite’s Ghanaian Writings’.
- KETTLE, SHODONA ORISSA: The case for reparations in Haiti: Remembering and strategic forgetting.
- ITO, MICHIRU: Narratives on perceived whites and their privilege – Analysing whiteness in Barbados.
- GILL, GORDON: The Contestation and Construction of Freedom by Guyanese Ex-Slaves, 1834-1848.
- PATTEN, H: Dancing identity: reggae/dancehall and visibility in Britain.
- JOSEPH JACKSON, SHAMMANE: History of the Construction of the British Guiana Railway and its Effects on the Emancipated Africans.
- ALLEN-PAISANT, JASON: Thinking with Spirits, or, Dwelling and Knowing in the work of Aimé Césaire.
- SMITH, CHELSEY: Cultivating Free Children’s Minds: Child Labor and Education in Apprenticeship Era Jamaica, 1834-1838.
- WALL, NATALIE: Black Spectacle, Black Bodies: Performing the Caribbean at the Notting Hill Carnival.
- BARRATT, KAI: “By Any Means…”: Soca and Survival on Instagram Live.
- BROWN, CHASITIE: Performing Afro-Caribbean Identity: Carnival in Santiago de Cuba.
Had this SCS Conference been an Indian Diaspora Conference organized and hosted online by the NCIC Divali Nagar in Central Trinidad, the number of Indo-Caribbean presenters would have been about 40, instead of one (1). Does the theory of multicultural psychology explain this group behavior? As an ethnic minority, Indo-Caribbean people feel safer and more comfortable in their own settings among their own people with whom they can identify, as opposed to a multi-ethnic environment with the presence of a hegemonic group. This type of behavior is universal among all ethnic groups, particularly a minority in a mono-cultural setting where the risk of religious, racial, political, and ideological conflict is minimal.
By Dr. Kumar Mahabir
Dr. Mahabir is an anthropologist who has published 12 books.
Divorce is a hard fact in someone's life because it can affect all aspects of life like social, economic, and living status. Conditions become tougher if you have children. Recovering from divorce is also a painful process but good thing is that it is possible to get through it and place better in terms of both finances and emotions. The impact of divorce on finances can be life-lasting but taking precautions and thorough investigations of options can help a lot not only to save unnecessary costs but also some other hidden areas where you weren't aware. Following are some tips to save money during a divorce.
1.Avoid advice from everyone
People like your friends, family members, colleagues, neighbors, etc. will start giving unsolicited advice during the divorce process when you discuss it with them. They will share their own experiences and horror stories and advice on how to handle financial issues during the divorce process. Get advice only from those you trust. In this regard, attorneys or financial experts are the best options to save money during the divorce process.
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2.Consider your spouse
It can be challenging for someone who has started the divorce process to think about the soon-to-be ex-spouse's best interests and financial wellbeing. While making decisions about assets and finances, considering not only your interests but also your spouse's interests can help you to reduce divorce process time. You can save your own and your spouse's money if you spend less time in such negotiations because times spend with the attorney will also be shortened.
3.Goodbye to the joint bank account
You should close all joint bank accounts which were in use of you and your spouse especially credit base account. Block major and supplementary credit and debit cards. Your spouse can use it and you can suffer heavy financial loss. Closing of all joint accounts should be the first step to cut down financial loss during divorce proceedings.
4.Open a new checking account
In continuation of the previous point, open your new checking account. This will help you in terms of not only building up of financial history but also your credit record. Credit history will be helpful if you apply for a loan or any other credit facility. This financial history will let you control your money during the divorce process. If your bank account is not a joint account but you own it, then make sure that your spouse was not using supplementary debit or credit cards. If the spouse was using then block it immediately.
Divorce can include many additional and sometimes hidden costs along with routine costs. This can bring more stress and worries to your life. Saving money can help you to fight such financial status. Force savings every month in this regard can help a lot. You can do this by opening a savings account and setting up a debit order from your checking account.
Recovering from divorce is also a painful process but good thing is that it is possible to get through it and place better in terms of both finances and emotions.Getty pictures
6.Keeping track record of the expense
You may not be interested in maintaining a record sheet of your expenses during your married life. If so, then you should start now. Analyze your bank statement critically because expenses can be out of control now. Review your daily cost of things and make critical decisions to cut down unnecessary costs.
7.Chalk out budget
Ideally, a proper budget should be chalked out to control expenses and save money during the divorce process. Select important segments/areas of your lifestyle and allocate a budget to each of them. After allocation of budget, stick to it strictly every month. This can be problematic in the beginning but become easy when you become used to it. By doing this, you will also be able to manage your savings account by allocating money.
8.Own health insurance
Medical emergencies and different health issues can be sudden or without any notice. So, it is necessary to have a health insurance plan in order to not only pay bills of medicines and lab tests but also an unexpected expensive hospital stay. If your health insurance has previously been covering your spouse then it is advisable to set up your own health insurance plan. This can help you to save money.
9.Amendments in your will and beneficiaries
If you have already decided about your will beneficiaries then it is the right time to update it. Now your divorce is under process, so, the content of your will and beneficiaries should also be significantly changed. This is much needed because it is possible that now you have children and who you like to allocate your property and saving especially if the children were not present when you drew up the will.
10.Change power of attorney
Many people assign power of attorney to their spouses during the marriage. Now it is essential to update and end the power of attorney and signing authority given to the spouse. This will help you in terms of legal and financial matters.
11.Apply for online divorce
Advancement in technology has made it easy for everyone to save time and money. Now in the United States, it is easy to apply for a divorce online. You can save time and attorney fees by downloading all the required divorce documents online. You should not worry about which document and how downloaded because many local court websites can give detailed information about how to file divorce online and which documents are needed.
12.Make use of the mediator
It is extremely helpful to use the mediator to decide terms and conditions between you and your spouse. Although an attorney is needed in certain matters of divorce use of a mediator will help you in saving attorney fee
Many spouses are very conscious about expensive assets and luxuries that are going to be distributed among spouses after the divorce. So, they make decisions to splurge on these luxuries. It is advisable not to splurge as the cost of divorce proves may be past your expectation.
14.Do it yourself (DIY) divorce
Many people are unable to afford the cost of attorney and mediator, so, they now try to handle things by themselves as much as possible. The rate of divorce and its cost is increasing day by day. This factor making "do it yourself (DIY) divorce" popular. DIY spouses are using information given by some attorneys who are offering free consultation on their first meeting.
Disclaimer: ( The article is sponsored and hence promotes some commercial links)
Gone are those days when people, sports enthusiasts, and governments lined up to host the Olympics. Hosting the Olympics, once seemed to be an immensely prideful event, but it has now transformed into an economic burden. Host cities grapple with a plethora of problems which mainly include construction delays, cost overruns, security issues, and environmental concerns.
The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has more or less aggravated the problems. The Winter Olympic Games are scheduled for 2022 in Bejing, China. Furthermore, Paris and Los Angeles have been recently nominated as the hosts for the 2024 and 2028 Olympics Games respectively. Both cities have held the Games on two occasions previously, with Los Angeles hosting as recently as 1984. Simply submitting a bid to the International Olympics Committee (IOC) costs up to millions of dollars. Host cities typically have to spend $50 million to $100 million in fees to a slew of consultancy agencies, event management companies, etc.
Hosting the Olympics is more costly than the bidding process. For instance, London spent $14.6 billion for hosting the Games in 2012. On the other side, Beijing spent a lavish $42 billion for the Games in 2008. Meanwhile, the Russians spent $51 billion dollars on the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics. Making, it the costliest Olympic Games in the history of the Olympics.
Governments of host cities and bid teams love to brag about the legacy of hosting the Games. But the hidden costs of such a massive project is too evident to hide. Such megaprojects require additional employment, as well as subsequent improvement of the pre-existing facilities and public infrastructure. Most of these projects are fraught with costs overruns, shoddy work and a lack of long term vision.
According to a study conducted at the prestigious Oxford University In England, by Danish geographer Bent Flyvbjerg and American journalist Allison Stewart, which looked into the individual economic parameters of hosting the Summer Olympic Games between 1960 and 2012. The findings were astonishing, they found out that the Olympic Games overrun the initial cost estimate with 100 per cent consistency. No other megaproject is this consistent regarding cost overruns.
Athens, in particular, seems to have been the tipping point. The city pridefully hosted the Games in 2004, which ended up costing them €9 billion (a whopping $11 billion at today's exchange rate). The offset of the Games was in disguise the onset of Greece's tumultuous years. The country now is in total disarray, with sky-high unemployment rates, failing economic apparatus, record levels of homelessness, all among the grandiose venues built for the Games.
The conclusion is simple, hosting the Olympics is an extravagant affair. If not planned properly, it tends to result in a severe economic crisis for the host city. If the host city lacks facilities and public infrastructure to support the excess crowds pouring in, not hosting the Olympics may be the best option.
Indian wrestler Ravi Kumar (57kg) and Deepak Punia (86kg) enjoyed fruitful outings at the Tokyo Olympic Games as they secured semifinal berths in their respective weight categories at the Makuhari Messe on Wednesday.
On the opening day of the wrestling competition, Ravi Kumar defeated Bulgaria's Georgi Vangelov 14-4 on technical superiority to reach the last-four in the men's 57kg category, while compatriot Deepak Punia overcame China's Zushen Lin 6-3 on points to advance to the semifinals.
Ravi Kumar will take on Nurislam Sanayev of Kazakhstan in the last-four, while Punia will be up against David Morris Taylor of the USA.
Earlier, Ravi Kumar had won his opening-round bout by technical superiority against Colombia's Oscar Tigreros to secure a quarterfinal spot. Competing in the Round-of-16 bout against the Colombian wrestler, the 23-year-old Ravi Kumar, who is making his Olympic debut, showed no nerves as he dominated the bout to win by technical superiority (13-2).
Ravi Kumar landed attack after attack and went 13-2 up, winning the bout by technical superiority with minutes to spare. In wrestling, building up a 10-point lead over the opponent results in a victory by technical superiority.
India's 86kg freestyle wrestler Deepak Punia showed no signs of the niggle that had forced him to pull out of the Poland Open Ranking Series in Warsaw in June, as he defeated Nigeria's Ekerekeme Agiomor on technical superiority to secure a quarterfinal berth.
He got his Olympic campaign to a fine start as he was in control from the start of the bout and hardly ever allowed his Nigerian opponent any room to maneuver his moves, finally winning with a 12-1 on technical superiority.
Punia, who had also suffered an elbow injury just before the Games, was slow at the start but came into his own as the bout progressed, inflicting takedowns at regular intervals to earn points.
The Indian wrestler eased into a 4-1 lead at the break and extended his lead comfortably in the second period.
Punia, the silver medallist from the 2019 world wrestling championships, then set up a clash with China's Lin Zushen in the quarterfinals and defeated him 6-3.