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By Akash Shukla
पदवाक्यप्रमाणशास्त्रेभ्यः (व्याकरणमीमांसान्यायादिभ्यः) अर्थनिर्धारणार्थानां विधिकल्पानां प्रकाराणाञ्च सङ्कलनम् अत्र
In other words, language is the storehouse of all human knowledge and it is represented by words and meanings. Across languages, even though words and their usage differ but their conceptual meanings remain unchanged. Interestingly, the dictionary meanings are rarely taken into consideration.
Hailed as the founder of literature and language, this famous Sanskrit Grammarian gave a scientific analysis of Sanskrit phonetics and morphology. No! There could absolutely be no brownie points for guessing the right name as Panini in his unparalleled language effort brought about the development of Sanskrit’s grammar.
Keeping it ‘relative’ and ‘gestural’, all language speakers understand it ‘contextually’ and ‘tonally’. Fascinating as it may seem, language is ambiguous in one sense and flexible in the other.
Amid the list of Indian grammarian Panini’s eminent feats, his most celebrated work is called Ashtadhyayi, written in the 6th to 5th century bce. Encompassing the piece in eight chapters, the treatise underpins the difference between the language of sacred texts and the language used for communicating daily.
A basic set of rules and definitions was given to describe Sanskrit grammar. With its complex use of metarules, transformations, and recursions, Ashtadhyayi is not only generative but descriptive as well.
While the most interesting non-Western grammatical tradition speaks of India, the dates continue to depict an interesting tale as well; it dates back at least two and one half millennia and culminates with Panini’s grammar.
As soon as Sanskrit’s visibility and inception became visible to the Western learned clan, the procedure to decode the Indo-European grammar comparison ensued. As one thing leads to another, the next thing that happened in the chain reaction was that foundation stones were laid for 19th century structures of comparative philology and historical linguistics.
But, Sanskrit in all this was simply used for data. Indian grammatical learning had no direct part to play. To the contrary, 19th century chroniclers realized that native tradition of phonetics in ancient India was superior to Western knowledge.
In the rules or (sutras) of Panini, there is a remarkably subtle and penetrating account of Sanskrit grammar.
In Hindu grammarian Panini’s work, the sutra style attained matchless perfection. The sutra literature began before the rise of Buddhism, though the philosophical sutras all seem to have been composed afterward.
As translated by Srisa Chandra Vasu, Vyakarana (Grammar) is determined as one of the six Vedangas—‘limbs of the Veda’. Its study was deemed necessary for a correct interpretation of sacred mantras and proper performance of Vedic rites.
Linguistic, phonetic and grammatical inquiries were addressed to elucidate the Vedic meaning and the effort also aimed at settling its textual form. ‘Vedanga’ represents grammatical science and has ever since remained the benchmark and authority for Sanskrit grammar in India. For a detailed understanding of linguistic facts and with an insight in the vernacular’s structure, this work stands peerless in the literature of any nation.
Panini’s system of arrangement differs entirely from the one that is usually adopted in our grammars because the work is composed in aphorisms. They needed to be learnt by heart as the economy of memory-matter was the author’s utmost consideration. Panini’s object was primarily achieved by grouping all cases exhibiting the same phonetic or formative feature; it did not matter whether they belonged to the same part of speech or not.
For this purpose, he used an ingenious system of algebraic symbols that consisted technical letters (anubandha). They were mainly used with suffixes and they indicated changes for roots or stems during the process of word-formation.
Actress Kangana Ranaut has talked about how her weight adjustments for her latest 'Thalaivii' that "messed up many things" in her body and left her with "permanent stretch marks". For her role in the film, based on the life of late Tamil Nadu Chief Minister and former actress J. Jayalalithaa, Kangana had to gain 20kg and undergo major physical transformation several times.
She took to Instagram to share her experience, detailing that doing all that over the six months period left her with "permanent stretch marks". "Gaining 20 kgs in 6 months and loosing it all within 6 months that too in my thirties messed up many things in my bodya I also have permanent stretch marks as well but art comes to life with a price and more often than not price is the artist him/herself," she wrote.
"Thalaivii" showcases the varied aspects of Jayalalithaa's life, tracing her journey as an actress at a young age to becoming the face of Tamil cinema, as well as the rise of the revolutionary leader who changed the course of the state's politics. Talking about her upcoming works, Kangana currently has 'Dhaakad'.
She is also shooting for her next 'Tejas', where she plays a fighter pilot. The Indian Air Force was the first of the country's defence forces to induct women into combat roles in 2016. The film takes inspiration from the landmark event. 'Tejas' is directed by debutant Sarvesh Mewara. The film will be RSVP's second film which pays a tribute to the Indian military after the immensely successful film "Uri: The Surgical Strike" which was released in January 2019. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Kangana Ranaut, Thalaivii, bollywood, stretc marks, actress, tamil cinema
Signal's encrypted messaging app continues to be down on Monday after facing global outage on Sunday. The firm said it is working to fix it. "Hold tight, folks! Signal is currently down, due to a hosting outage affecting parts of our service. We're working on bringing it back up," the firm said in a tweet on Sunday.
The status website says the encrypted messaging app is "experiencing technical difficulties" and many people are also getting an in-app error message that says the same thing. Signal allows for secure and encrypted video, voice and text communication, but users are unable to send any messages.
According to Downdetector.com, users started reporting outages around 11:05 PM Eastern Standard Time and it appears to be affecting people around the world. Comments shared on Downdetector.com indicates that Signal was down for users from India, US, Germany, New Zealand, Netherlands, Australia, Brazil and many other countries.
"Down in Midwest USA. Signal was started by people connected to which secret 3-letter organization? (Look it up) Yep, that's right! An app disguised a privacy app to trick you into sharing more private information than you would with another messaging app," a user said. "I think Signal is having a rough day. Good luck, Team Signal. I'm sure you'll have it sorted out in a snap," said another. The encrypted messaging service has climbed to the top spot in the free apps category of the App Store in multiple countries, including India. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Signal, app, encrypted, messages, outage, down
Apple has acknowledged an issue where the "unlock with Apple Watch" feature might not work with its new iPhone 13 devices and promised to fix this issue with an upcoming software update. "You might see 'Unable to Communicate with Apple Watch' if you try to unlock your iPhone while wearing a face mask, or you might not be able to set up Unlock with Apple Watch," the iPhone maker said in the support document.
This issue will be fixed in an upcoming software update. Until the update is available, you can turn off Unlock with Apple Watch and use your passcode to unlock your iPhone 13. To turn off Unlock with Apple Watch, go to Settings > Face ID & Passcode.
Earlier, multiple users found that they cannot unlock their iPhone 13 with the Apple Watch and instead received an error. User Monzilla88 on Reddit first reported the issue to the subreddit r/AppleWatch. They stated that both their iPhone 13 Pro and Apple Watch SE are up to date with the newest iOS and watchOS updates.
"Whenever I try to enable unlock with Apple Watch on my phone I get an error saying "Unable to communicate with Apple Watch," they posted. Monzilla88 claimed that they had tried unpairing and repairing, hard resetting both devices, turning on and off passcodes, but not no avail, the report said. More than 20 other users self-reported the same problem, with others noting that the feature works fine on iOS 15 on older models of iPhone, including the iPhone 11 Pro Max and the iPhone X. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: iPhone 13, apple, watch, issue, update, face lock