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Personal life of Subhas Chandra Bose generates divisive views

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Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
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Kolkata: Netaji’s aura made people curious about the revolutionary leader’s personal life, giving strong and divisive views.

Files declassified by the Narendra Modi government reveal that serious objections were raised about Emilie Schenkl being acknowledged as Netaji’s wife and Anita Bose Pfaff as his daughter.

According to one document, the home ministry, on February 6, 1980, wrote to the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO), the external affairs ministry and the Research and Analysis Wing saying it had “no records of Netaji’s marriage” or “birth of a female child”.

“The ministry (has) no records pertaining to Netaji’s reported marriage to a foreign lady or birth of a female child by that marriage. Intelligence bureau has also been consulted, and they have no record in this regard,” reads the letter signed by Vinay Vasistha, under secretary in the government.

The move from the home ministry came after then West Bengal Governor T N Singh enquired about the identity of Anita Pfaff whom he met at the Raj Bhavan.

Singh made the enquiry following a letter by Arun Ghose, a member of the All India Freedom Fighters’ Samity, raising serious doubts about Netaji’s marriage.

Incidentally, according to another document, the PMO in 1978 had affirmed Emilie Schenkl to be the widow and Anita Schenkl to be the daughter of Netaji.

A cursory glance of the file reveals the following:

– It had been acknowledged that Emilie Schenkl was the widow of Subhas Chandra Bose and Anita Schenkl his daughter.

– The family members of Subhas Chandra Bose had also accepted this.

– Anita Bose visited India in 1960 and was staying in the PM’s house for some time.

– All India Congress Committee has been sending Rs.6,000 annually to Anita upto 1964, reads the PMO document.

The PMO’s reply was made after Justice G.D. Khosla, who headed the enquiry commission to probe the disappearance of Netaji, sought to examine the panel’s report after he was sued for defamation on his claims in his book that Anita was Netaji’s daughter.

In another letter dated November 1963, bearing his stamped signature, then PM Jawaharlal Nehru said he was aware that Netaji had married.

“I had this knowledge that either in Germany or Austria he had married and had a daughter who two-three years back visited India and met Subhas Babu’s family in Kolkata,” reads the letter in Hindi.

There is another document wherein one Hari Pada Bose in March 1962 had written to Nehru enquiring if there existed any official record of Emilie Schenkl’s marriage to Netaji and the birth certificate of his daughter.

In the memorandum attached to the letter bearing the sign of PM’s private secretary ML Bazaz, it has been stated that Hari Pada Bose’s letter was “not acknowledged”.(IANS)

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Diesel Exhaust Converted Into Ink by Indian Innovators To Battle Air Pollution

Supervised by young engineers, workers at the start-up company Chakr Innovation in New Delhi cut and weld sheets of metal to make devices that will capture black plumes of smoke from diesel generators and convert it into ink.

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representational image. VOA

Supervised by young engineers, workers at the start-up company Chakr Innovation in New Delhi cut and weld sheets of metal to make devices that will capture black plumes of smoke from diesel generators and convert it into ink.

In a cabin, young engineers pore over drawings and hunch over computers as they explore more applications of the technology that they hope will aid progress in cleaning up the Indian capital’s toxic air – among the world’s dirtiest.

While the millions of cars that ply Delhi’s streets are usually blamed for the city’s deadly air pollution, another big culprit is the massive diesel generators used by industries and buildings to light up homes and offices during outages when power from the grid switches off – a frequent occurrence in summer. Installed in backyards and basements, they stay away from the public eye.

“Although vehicular emissions are the show stoppers, they are the ones which get the media attention, the silent polluters are the diesel generators,” says Arpit Dhupar, one of the three engineers who co-founded the start up.

The idea that this polluting smoke needs attention struck Dhupar three years ago as he sipped a glass of sugarcane juice at a roadside vendor and saw a wall blackened with the fumes of a diesel generator he was using.

It jolted him into joining with two others who co-founded the start-up to find a solution. Dhupar had experienced first hand the deadly impact of this pollution as he developed respiratory problems growing up in Delhi.

An Indian girls holds a banner during a protest against air pollution in New Delhi, India, Nov. 6, 2016.
An Indian girls holds a banner during a protest against air pollution in New Delhi, India, Nov. 6, 2016.

A new business

As the city’s dirty air becomes a serious health hazard for many citizens, it has turned into both a calling and a business opportunity for entrepreneurs looking at ways to improve air quality.

According to estimates, vehicles contribute 22 percent of the deadly PM 2.5 emissions in Delhi, while the share of diesel generators is about 15 percent. These emissions settle deep into the lungs, causing a host of respiratory problems.

After over two years of research and development, Chakr has begun selling devices to tap the diesel exhaust. They have been installed in 50 places, include public sector and private companies.

The technology involves cooling the exhaust in a “heat exchanger” where the tiny soot particles come together. These are then funneled into another chamber that captures 70 to 90 percent of the particulate matter. The carbon is isolated and converted into ink.

Among their first clients was one of the city’s top law firms, Jyoti Sagar Associates, which is housed in a building in Delhi’s business hub Gurgaon.

Making a contribution to minimizing the carbon footprint is a subject that is close to Sagar’s heart – his 32-year-old daughter has long suffered from the harmful effects of Delhi’s toxic air.

Motorists drive surrounded by smog, in New Delhi, India, Nov. 8, 2017.
Motorists drive surrounded by smog, in New Delhi, India, Nov. 8, 2017.

“This appealed to us straightaway, the technology is very impactful but is beautifully simple,” says Sagar. Since it could be retrofitted, it did not disrupt the day-to-day activities at the buzzing office. “Let’s be responsible. Let’s at least not leave behind a larger footprint of carbon. And if we can afford to control it, why not, it’s good for all,” he says.

At Chakr Innovation, cups, diaries and paper bags printed with the ink made from the exhaust serve as constant reminders of the amount of carbon emissions that would have escaped into the atmosphere.

There has been a lot of focus on improving Delhi’s air by reducing vehicular pollution and making more stringent norms for manufacturers, but the same has not happened for diesel generators. Although there are efforts to penalize businesses that dirty the atmosphere, this often prompts them to find ways to get around the norms.

Also Read: Exposure to Traffic-Related Pollution Poses Threat of Asthma in Kids

Tushar Mathur who joined the start up after working for ten years in the corporate sector feels converting smoke into ink is a viable solution. “Here is a technology which is completely sustainable, a win-win between businesses and environment,” says Mathur. (VOA)