Washington: Nobel Prize winner Angus Deaton’s current research focuses on the determinants of health in rich and poor countries as well as on the measurement of poverty in India and around the world.
The British-born Princeton University professor has been awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in economics for his contributions to understanding consumption at the individual level and in aggregate. Deaton, who also maintains a longstanding interest in the analysis of household surveys, noted that his focus on individuals and their decisions is important both from an academic and ethical standpoint, according to a report on the university website.
“In the end, it’s individual peoples’ well-being that counts,” he was quoted as saying. “When you’re counting the poverty rate in India or the mortality rate in the United States, all of those things you’re looking at are aggregates.”
“But it’s one death at a time. It’s one person at a time who’s in poverty,” Deaton said. “It’s their lives that are being led. In the end, I don’t think you’re ever going to want to get away from the individual.”
Deaton’s latest book, ‘The Great Escape: Health, Wealth and the Origins of Inequality’ (Princeton University Press), explores the story of how, beginning 250 years ago, some parts of the world sustained progress, opening up gaps and setting the state for today’s unequal world.
He’s also widely known for publications on the relationship between income and happiness, with Kahneman.
In announcing Deaton’s prize, the Nobel committee also specifically noted Deaton’s 1980 paper, with John Muellbauer, ‘An Almost Ideal Demand System’, which details a way to provide a reliable picture of demand patterns in society.
At a news conference in Princeton Monday afternoon, Deaton noted the tremendous progress that has been made in conditions around the world.
“I’ve spent a lot of time arguing the world is getting to be a much better place,” Deaton said.
“Over the past 200 years, the world has been transformed from something close to destitution to where many, many of us have much richer lives in which our talents and capabilities can be more fully expressed. I do tend to emphasise there’s more to be done.”
Deaton, a native of the United Kingdom, earned his bachelor’s degree and PhD from Cambridge University. He taught at Cambridge and the University of Bristol before joining the faculty at Princeton in 1983.
New Delhi, August 14, 2017: Be it for Competitive Exams, or simply General Knowledge, it’s always good to let your brain know things that matter. Awards, indeed are recognition given to people for their achievements, accomplishments, or contributions in a particular field, therefore it becomes important to know which award holds what purpose, when was it instituted, and when is it given. Here we have compiled a list of all important awards, saving you a part of your time that you would have otherwise wasted sweeping through webpages, searching for the awards one by one.
1. Nobel Prize: The most coveted international award was named after Alfred Bernard Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. The award is given every year on December 10th, which marks the death anniversary of Alfred Bernard Nobel. The Nobel Prize is given to those renowned persons who have made pioneering achievements in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Peace, Literature, and Economics. Awards for all categories have been given since 1901, except Economics which was instituted in 1967 and first given in 1969.
2. Magsaysay Awards: Named after the former president of Philippines, Ramon Magasaysay, this award was Instituted in 1957. The award is presented every year on August 31, for excellent contributions in journalism, literature, arts, international understanding, community leadership and public service. It is also regarded as the Nobel prize of Asia.
3. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding: The Government of India Instituted this award in in 1965 to honor the work of persons for outstanding contributions to goodwill and international understanding among people around the world.
4. Oscar Awards: The most prestigious award in the world of cinema was instituted in 1929. The Academy of Motion Pictures in USA confers the award annually. Bhanu Athaiya was the first Indian to get an Oscar for his movie ‘Gandhi’, while Satyajit Ray, the first Indian to be awarded with an Oscar for lifetime achievements in Cinema in 1992.
LIST OF ALL IMPORTANT AWARDS
5. UNESCO Peace Prize: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) presents this award for remarkable contributions for international peace.
6. Pulitzer Prize: Instituted in 1997, this award is conferred annually in the USA, for extraordinary accomplishments in journalism, music and literature. The award is named after the US publisher, Joseph Pulitzer.
7. Right Livelihood Award: Instituted in 1980 by the Right Livelihood Society, London, also known as alternate Nobel Award, is given to persons for contributing in the areas of environment and social justice.
8. Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize: Instituted in 1995 by Government of India, following the lines of Nobel prize, It is presented for contributions in maintaining or promoting international peace.
9. UNESCO Human Rights Award: Another award presented by UNESCO every alternate year, for work in the field of Human Rights and its awareness.
LIST OF ALL IMPORTANT AWARDS
10. Man Booker Prize: Man Booker makes for the highest literary honor to authors of British, Irish and Commonwealth countries. It was instituted in 1968 by the Booker Company and the British Publishers Association following the lines of Pulitzer Prize of US.
11. UN Human Rights Award: This award is presented every sixth year by UN for personal contribution for the cause of human rights.
12. World Food Prize: The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) presents the award for contributions in the field of agriculture and food development.
13. Indira Gandhi Award For International Peace, Disarmament and Development: This award is presented by Indira Gandhi Memorial Fund in India for specialized contribution in the field of international disarmament and development.
14. Bharat Ratna: Bharat Ratna or the highest civilian award of India is presented by the Government of India for rarest achievements in the field of art, literature and science, and extraordinary public service. It was instituted in 1954, with C. Rajagopalchari as its first recipient.
15. Padma Vibhushan: The second highest civilian award, coming right after Padma Vibhushan is presented for distinguished services in any field including Government service. The other important civilian awards include, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shree.
LIST OF ALL IMPORTANT AWARDS
16. Bhartiya Jnanpeeth Awards: Instituted in 1965, these awards are given to scholars for their distinguished works in any of the recognized languages.
17. Sahitya Akademy Awards: Instituted in 1955, these awards are presented to writers for any exclusive writing in any of the 22 languages including English literature.
18. Saraswati Samman: Instituted in 1991 by the K.K. Birla Foundation, the honor is given for any distinguished literary work made during last 10 years in any of the Indian language.
19. Vyas Samman: Instituted in 1992 by the K.K. Birla Foundation, the honor is given to people for outstanding contribution to Hindi literature.
20. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Awards: They are presented to the Indian scientists for their exceptionally brilliant performance.
LIST OF ALL IMPORTANT AWARDS
21. R.D. Birla Award: This award is given in the field of medical sciences.
22. Dhanvantri Award: These awards are given for exceptional performance in medical sciences.
23. Arjuna Awards: The prestigious Arjuna awards, instituted in 1961, are presented by the Youth affairs and Sports Ministry, Government of India, for achievements of players in National Sports.
24. Dronacharya Awards: Instituted in 1985, the award is given by the Sports Ministry, government of India, for excellent coaching in sports and games. It is named after Drona, also known as guru Dronacharya, a character from the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata.
25. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna: It is the highest sporting honor of India, awarded for excellent performance in sports and games. The award is named after Rajiv Gandhi, former prime minister of India. It was instituted in 1992.
26. Gallantry Awards
* Param Vir Chakra: It is the highest award for bravery in India, awarded for displaying valor during wartime.
* Mahavir Chakra: It is the second highest gallantry award after Param Vir Chakra, awarded for acts of gallantry in the presence of the enemy.
* Vir Chakra: It is the third highest gallantry award, presented for exhibiting bravery in the battlefield.
* Ashok Chakra: It is the highest peace-time gallantry award, presented for courageous action away from the battlefield.
-prepared by Samiksha Goel of NewsGram. Twitter @goel_Samiksha
Upendranath Brahmachari was born in Bihar in the year 1873
He grew up specializing in medicine and surgery
The doctor is said to have saved millions of lives through curing a viral disease called Kala-Azar
August 22, 2017: A renowned and prominent name in the hall of fame list of Indian scientists is Upendranath Brahmachari who was famous in the field of medicine.
Dr. Brahmachari’s most important work during his lifetime was his discovery of Urea Stibamine, a treatment for the fatal disease called Kala-Azar.
BACKGROUND: Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari was born in Jamalpur, Bihar on 19th December 1873. At the time, Bihar and Assam were in shambolic states. But Dr. Brahmachari had a fairly secure growing up phase. His father, Dr. Nilmony Brahmachari, was a famous medical practitioner in the Indian as well as European communities. Dr. Nilmony Brahmachari worked as a physician in East Indian Railways.
Dr. Upendranath did his schooling from Eastern Railway’s Boys High School. He loved math and had excellent academic records. The young genius went on to obtain a Bachelor’s degree with honors in chemistry and mathematics in 1893 from Hooghly Mohsin College. Further, Brahmachari did polymath. He got a Master’s degree in medicine from Kolkata’s Presidency College. His Ph.D. was a thesis on ‘Haemolysis’ which he earned in 1904.
CAREER: Upendranath Brahmachari began his career as a doctor in Kolkata under Sir Gerald Bomford. Impressed by the talent, in 1901 Sir Bomford offered Brahmachari, who was 27 at the time, to teach physiology in Dacca Medical School.
Later in 1905, Brahmachari was appointed as a teacher in medicine and physician at Kolkata’s Campbell Medical School. This is where Dr. Brahmachari made some of his remarkable and outstanding discoveries, most notably, the discovery of Urea Stibamine.
This discovery was to become a significant treatment for the fatal disease called Kala-Azar. Kala-Azar is a disease strictly limited to the Mediterranean as well as South Asian nations. Sand flies are known to transmit this disease. Various characteristics broadly include irregular fever, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen. Kala-Azar was known as the second largest parasitic killer of the world, followed by Malaria.
A treatment for Kala-Azar existed at the time but it was not helping the rapid death rates due to the disease. Dr. Brahmachari had been devoting his time to finding a treatment that had little to no disadvantages but could not come up with anything.
In 1919, his breakthrough came knocking at the door. The Indian Research Fund Association had granted resources to Brahmachari for conducting more in-depth research for the treatment of the disease. With this help, in his Campbell Medical School lab, the Doctor discovered Urea Stibamine.
Kala-Azar today is a rare disease only present in a handful of remote places. Especially in Assam where the disease thrived, many lives were saved.
Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari instantly became a popular figure in the Indian science academia. His discovery was now successfully incorporated into the growing scientific knowledge in medicine. His masterpiece “Treatise on Kala-Azar” became an essential reference reading in medicine. Moreover, his other works include treatment of malaria, dermal leishmaniasis, quartan fever, blackwater fever, and more.
Brahmachari retired in 1927 but continued to participate in Kolkata’s cultural and humanitarian activities. He stayed connected to all literary and scientific organizations in Kolkata.
Achievements: The World’s Second Blood Bank which was formed in Kolkata was driven by the efforts of Dr. Brahmachari. He was also the Head of Department for Biochemistry in Kolkata’s University College of Science, where he was also the Honorary Professor of Biochemistry.
The Asiatic Society of Bengal awarded Upendranath Brahmachari with ‘Sir William Jones Medal’. He was also awarded the Griffith Memorial Prize by the University of Kolkata. The Kolkata School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene awarded the Doctor a Minto Medal.
He became the first Indian to be elected as the chairman of Managing body of Kolkata Branch of the Indian Red Cross Society.
For his numerous contributions to science, he was awarded the title of Rai Bahadur in 1924. The same year, Brahmachari was also awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind gold medal.
In the year 1929, the famous scientist was honored with being nominated for the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine and almost won India the first Nobel Prize in the category, however, it was won by Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins and Christiaan Eijkman for their detailed work on vitamins. Brahmachari was also conferred a knighthood by the British Government in 1934.
Brahmachari was also conferred a knighthood by the British Government in 1934.
Dr. Upendranath Brahmachari’s name comes along with Satyendra Nath Bose as two main figures during the Bengal Rennaissance.
Death: On 6th February 1946, Brahmachari passed away aged 72. For his contributions to the Kolkata society’s well-being, the Kolkata Municipal Corporation changed the name of Loudon street to D.R UN Brahmachari Street.
– Prepared by Saksham Narula of NewsGram. Twitter @Saksham2394
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Kolkata, Nov 25, 2016: A ‘baul’ singer has been taken into police custody for his suspected association in the theft of Rabindranath Tagore’s Nobel Prize medal in 2004, a CID officer stated today.
Pradip Bauri, a folk singer, was picked up by the Special Investigation Team (SIT) from Ruppur village in Birbhum district earlier this month, the official said on condition of anonymity, mentioned PTI.
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“We are almost sure about his involvement. He arranged safe passage for others to move stolen items from Santiniketan to somewhere else. Though he has denied it we have decided to put him under narco-analysis test on Wednesday. We have already received court permission,” said the SIT official.
Bauri was locked up for nearly two weeks by the CBI during its investigation into the case.
PTI reports mentioned, it was clear after questioning Bauri that he had knowledge of the entire episode and others involved in the heist, he said.
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Bauri, who had presided over the gram panchayat of Ruppur from 1998 to 2003 had provided shelter to the culprits involved in stealing the medal and also helped them disappear, believe officials
Following his enquiry, it has been disclosed that a Bangladeshi national, Mohammed Hossain Shipul, was the mastermind of the plan and two Europeans were also involved in it, the SIT officer added.
West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had declared in August that if the state government was given the responsibility, it could try to retrieve the Nobel medallion stolen from a museum of Visva Bharati University. The medal has great historical and cultural value as it was the first Nobel Prize won by an Indian; but from a patriotic view, Tagore’s Nobel Medal is simply priceless, mentioned PTI.
Along with the medal, Tagore’s gold pocket watch, his wife Mrinalini Devi’s gold bangle and antique Baluchari saree, his father Debendranath Tagore’s gold ring, several silver articles, rare paintings besides other awards, and certificates conferred on him were also stolen. In 2005, the Nobel foundation handed over two replicas of the Nobel Prize to Vishwa Bharati University.
Even though CID and later CBI took over this case time and again, but they never had much luck and were compelled to close it down. After a temporary pause, this case was reopened again because of political influence and national interest.
The SIT which arrested Bauri, was formed thereafter with Mamata Banerjee’s enthusiasm and support. It consists of Kolkata Police Commissioner Rajiv Kumar, ADG of Criminal Investigation Department (CID) Rajesh Kumar and IG of CID (II) Javed Shamim.
– prepared by Durba Mandal of NewsGram with inputs from PTI. Twitter: @dubumerang