As the news of Mumtaz Qadri’s execution spread in the dawn of Monday, the social networking sites are again alive with the views of supporters and criticizers of this execution. Due to the reaction of religious Muslim fundamentalists on the execution, the matter of religious intolerance in Pakistan is again on the top of the trending topics of debate.
The reason why this execution has brought the matter of intolerance in the spotlight is, that Mumtaz Qadri has been executed for killing Salman Taseer who was the governor of the state of Punjab in Pakistan and the supporter of the amendment in Blasphemy law. Salman Taseer also supported Asia Bibi, a Christian who was accused of insulting prophet Mohammad and was sentenced to death for this. Taseer’s assassination by his own bodyguard Mumtaz had once again proved the extent of religious intolerance in the country and after 5 years of this issue, the condition has not improved but has worsened.
The blasphemy law has been in the news many times in the past. Actually, this law was made to ban the insult directed against any religion in 1927 during colonial rule. But the so-called “Father of Intolerance and Sectarianism”, Zia-Ul-Haq amended it in 1986 to protect only Islam prophet during his dictatorship in Pakistan.
Since then, this law has been hazardous for many people who were accused of insulting Prophet Mohammad. One more politician, minorities minister Shahbaz Bhatti was also killed in march 2011 just because he mentioned the need to debate about the law.
Pakistan, the only country in the world which was created on the basis of religion, at the time of its creation, announced that all citizens will be equal and every religious belief will be respected in the country. This announcement was proudly done by “Father of Pakistan”, Mohammad Ali Jinnah but religious tolerance was buried after his demise.
Today, there is no space for religious tolerance in Pakistan’s national and social polity. Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) has also highlighted the extent of intolerance in the country, asserting that Pakistan is becoming a more and more dangerous country for religious minorities and increasingly intolerant of dissent.
Not only Hindus, Christians, and Sikhs are being assaulted and socially and economically discriminated in the nation but some Muslim communities like Ahmadis are also facing harassment. After every interval of few weeks, we hear a news of sectarian violence in Pakistan. The most disappointing fact is that these shameful acts take place in connivance with the local police. The condition has been so critical that religious minorities of Pakistan are ready to become refugees in other countries rather than living in their country.
The death of Salman Taseer, Shahbaz Bhatti and the decisions of courts in thes cases relating to the insult of Islam has clarified the ideas in the minds of Pakistan’s religious activists and it has shown that Pakistan is buckling under Intolerance and extremism from many years.
Since Pakistan is a politically unstable country without solid democratic roots, has a weak economic base as well as vulnerable to army rules, Sectarianism, fundamentalism and religious Intolerance are going to have the permanent place in country’s social, religious and political polity.
Arpit Gupta is an engineering student at IIT Roorkee.
Congress MP Shashi Tharoor’s remark that India would become a “Hindu Pakistan” if the BJP is elected again in 2019, sparked off a major debate among the political circles of the country. BJP didn’t let the opportunity go by launching a scathing attack on Tharoor and his party for insulting Hindus and Indian democracy, forcing the Congress party to distance itself from its own MP’s comment. Only one year is left for the next general elections and in a politically polarised environment such comments serve as masala for political battles where perception is an important factor among the electorates.
Actually, Tharoor, through his statement, is trying to convey that “India may become a
fundamentalist state just like its neighbour — Pakistan”. Tharoor is a shrewd politician and his remarks are mainly for political gains. The comments refer to our neighbour going to polls on 25 th of this month which has a long history of ignoring minorities where the state institutions serve as a tool for glorifying the religious majority bloc and ridiculing the minorities. This compelled me to ponder about the participation of the Hindus — the largest minority bloc of the country, in the upcoming polls.
There are total 37 reserved seats for minorities in Pakistan — 10 in the National Assembly
(Lower House), 4 in the Senate (Upper House) and 23 in various state legislatures — 9 in the Sindh assembly, 8 in Punjab and 3 each in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pakistani Hindus, like other minorities have the dual voting rights in principle. But the reality is they have no rights to vote for their own representatives as the seats are reserved — means the distribution of these seats are at the discretion of parties’ leadership. Practically speaking, these reserved seats are meant for political parties not for minorities. In case of general seats, it is almost impossible for a Hindu candidate to win until and unless supported by the mainstream parties of the country. The bitter truth is — the mainstream parties have always ignored the Hindus by hesitating to field them from general seats. In 2013, only one Hindu candidate — Mahesh Kumar from the Tharparkar district won from a general seat, also became the only minority candidate to make it to the National Assembly from a general seat. This time too, he is nominated by the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) — a major centre-left party of Pakistan. However, there are no other Hindu candidates for a general seat from the two other significant centre-right parties — former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif’s Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) and cricketer turned politician Imran Khan’s Tehreek-E-Insaf (PTI). Although, there is a Hindu candidate named Sanjay Berwani from Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) — a Karachi (capital of Sindh province) based secular centrist party of Pakistan.
The Hindu population in Pakistan is about 1.8% according to the 2018 census, 0.2% more than that of the 1998 and the 1951 figures. It means that despite the state’s hostile policies, Hindus have been able to remain stable in a highly Islamist polarised society. 90% of the Hindu population of the country lives in the Sindh province. Hindu population in Umerkot,Tharparkar and Mirpur Khas districts of the Sindh province stands at 49%, 46% and 33% respectively — making them the only three substantial Hindu districts of the country. The three districts have 5 National Assembly and 13 Provincial seats. However, Hindus have never well represented from these seats.
Although, the mainstream parties stay away from nominating Hindus, this time there are many independent Hindu candidates contesting from general seats — mostly from the Sindh province. Many of them belong to the Schedule caste — the Dalit community. A recent report based on Pakistan Election Commission’s data says that out of 2.5 lakh women of Tharparkar district, around 2 lakh of them are not included in the electoral list — means that they are not entitled to vote for the upcoming general elections. All over the country, there are about 1.21 crore women voters who will not be able to vote in the elections. The reason is the lack of an identity card. Most of them are poor who are unable to pay the expenses required for an identity card. This has made difficult for independent Hindu Dalit candidates like Sunita Parmar and Tulsi Balani as most of their supporters will not be voting in the upcoming polls. In Tharparkar district, around 33% percent are the Hindu Dalits — brushed aside by the mainstream parties. The reserved seat candidates are based on party nominations, where mainly the upper caste Hindus are preferred. Radha Bheel, a first time contestant and the chairperson of Dalit Suhaag Tehreek (DST), a Dalit organisation, says that the fight is for the rights of the lower socio-economic class and scheduled castes. Sunita, Tulsi, Radha and the other independent Hindu candidates know
that the possibility of winning from the general seats is bleak but for them the contest is for their own identity — an identity never recognised by the political parties and the establishment of Pakistan.