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Religious Riot cases in India have increased at an alarming rate in last 6 Decades

The incidence of riots has increased over the last three years to 60 cases per million, or 20 percent more frequent compared to the last decade

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Calcutta Riots 1946, Wikimedia
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Sept 15, 2016: Religious tension in Ballabhgarh, Haryana, when 150 Muslims sought refuge in a police station; clashes between Hindus and Muslims during Ganesh festival processions in Belgaum, Karnataka; and riots over the birth anniversary celebrations of medieval ruler Tipu Sultan in Madikeri, Karnataka, represented Indias religious volatility in 2015.

However, communal rioting cases in the country declined by a third, from 1,227 in 2014 — the year that Narendra Modi was voted Prime Minister — to 789 in 2015, according to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data.

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About 40 percent fewer Indians died or were injured — called “victims” in NCRB terminology in 2015 (1,174) than in 2014 (2,001).

Haryana, India’s 17th largest state by population, reported the most (201) communal rioting cases in 2015, with 200 dead or injured, followed by Karnataka (163 cases, 203 victims), Maharashtra (80 cases, 104 victims) and Bihar (79 cases, 146 victims).

In Haryana, the rate of riots remained unchanged at 7.5 rioting cases per million population.Karnataka reported an increase in riot incidence, from 0.6 rioting cases per million to 2.6 rioting cases per million, while the cases quadrupled, from 38 in 2014 to 163 in 2015.

Kerala had more “political riots” than any other state, with more than half of India’s cases.

Jharkhand reduced its rate of riots, from 10 rioting cases per million to two per million. The overwhelmingly tribal state became five times more communally peaceful in 2015 compared to 2014 when assembly elections were conducted, with communal rioting cases dropping 80 percent from 349 to 68.

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Thirty-five years after rioting cases in India peaked at 160 per million in 1980, the country witnessed a relatively peaceful decade with respect to communal violence, especially in the period 2003-2012, when riot rate dropped to 50 cases per million.

The incidence of riots has increased over the last three years to 60 cases per million, or 20 percent more frequent compared to the last decade.

Rioting cases increased 251 percent over six decades, from 20,529 in 1953 to 76,131 in 2015 — the highest ever. For 2014 and 2015, we have included in “riots” crimes listed under “unlawful assembly” because they were clubbed together in previous years.

Of 76,131 rioting cases registered in 2015, 65,255 were filed under sections 147 to 153 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), meaning offences relating to riots, while 10,876 cases were filed under sections 141 and 142 of the IPC, meaning offences relating to unlawful assembly. As many as 74,633 cases in 2012 and 72,126 in 2013 were registered under riots and unlawful assembly.

Cases filed only under “riots” have decreased between 2014 and 2015, while those relating to “unlawful assembly” have increased.

Mass unrest nationwide in 2015 by dominant caste groups — Patels in Gujarat and Jats in Haryana– likely resulted in the high cases of “unlawful assembly”.

In absolute terms, Bihar had more riots than any other state with 13,311 cases registered in 2015, followed by Maharashtra (8,336), Uttar Pradesh (6,813), Karnataka (6,602).

The assembly elections in Bihar in 2015, and the parting of ways of the 25-year-old coalition of the Janata Dal-United (JD-U) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) resulted in a rise in riots in the Hindi heartland state over three years from 2013, the Indian Express reported in August 2015.

Kerala had 164 rioting cases per million population — the country’s highest rate — followed by Bihar (129) and Karnataka (126).

While Jharkhand reported eight caste-based rioting cases per million population, Tamil Nadu reported six.

Bihar reported more “agrarian riots” cases than any other state, (1,156), or 43 percent of cases in the country.Bihar had more riots than any other state with 13,311 cases registered in 2015, followed by Maharashtra (8,336), Uttar Pradesh (6,813), Karnataka (6,602).

The assembly elections in Bihar in 2015, and the parting of ways of the 25-year-old coalition of the Janata Dal-United (JD-U) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) resulted in a rise in riots in the Hindi heartland state over three years from 2013, the Indian Express reported in August 2015.

Kerala had 164 rioting cases per million population — the country’s highest rate — followed by Bihar (129) and Karnataka (126). (IANS)

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  • Enakshi

    This news is really sad and disturbing

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Gobal Care Crisis Rises Along With Growing Population

The report finds the majority of care globally is done by unpaid caregivers

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An elderly Chinese woman accompanied by her caregiver walks down a tree lined lane in Changchun in northeastern China's Jilin province, Aug. 27, 2010.
An elderly Chinese woman accompanied by her caregiver walks down a tree lined lane in Changchun in northeastern China's Jilin province, Aug. 27, 2010. VOA

The International Labor Organization (ILO) says urgent action is needed to avert a global crisis as the number of people, including children and elderly, needing care rises, The warning is part of a new ILO report on care work and care jobs unveiled Thursday in Geneva.

The ILO cautions that the global care crisis will become a reality in coming years without a doubling of investment. Authors of the report say $5.5 trillion was spent in 2015 on education, health and social work. They say that amount must be increased to $18.4 trillion by 2030 to prevent the care system from falling apart.

The report finds the majority of care globally is done by unpaid caregivers, mostly women and girls, and that it is a major barrier preventing women from getting paid jobs. It says this reality not only hampers their economic opportunities, but stifles development prospects.

Lead author Laura Addati tells VOA 606 million women, compared to 41 million men, are unable to get paid employment because they have to care for a family member.

“This pool of participants who are lost to the labor force could be activated, … [put in] jobs that could benefit society. A part of these jobs could be career [caregiver] jobs, so as we well pointed out, there could be basically an activation process to sort of replace some of those jobs, so making those who were unpaid, paid care workers,” she said.

A deaf-blind woman (R) is led by a caregiver at Santa Angela de la Cruz Center in Salteras, near Seville, Spain, June 6, 2011.
A deaf-blind woman (R) is led by a caregiver at Santa Angela de la Cruz Center in Salteras, near Seville, Spain, June 6, 2011. VOA

Addati says more people nowadays are part of nuclear families, eroding the concept of extended households, which used to play an important role in caring for family members. She says that is increasing the demand for more caregivers in smaller households.

The report finds that more than 380 million people globally are care workers. It says two-thirds are women. In Europe, the Americas and Central Asia, three-quarters of all care workers are women. The report notes long-term care services are practically non-existent in most African, Latin American and Asian countries.

Also read: International Migrants Day & global migrant crisis

The ILO says about 269 million jobs could be created if investment in education, health and social work were doubled by 2030, easing the global care crisis. (VOA)