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Religious Riot cases in India have increased at an alarming rate in last 6 Decades

The incidence of riots has increased over the last three years to 60 cases per million, or 20 percent more frequent compared to the last decade

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Calcutta Riots 1946, Wikimedia

Sept 15, 2016: Religious tension in Ballabhgarh, Haryana, when 150 Muslims sought refuge in a police station; clashes between Hindus and Muslims during Ganesh festival processions in Belgaum, Karnataka; and riots over the birth anniversary celebrations of medieval ruler Tipu Sultan in Madikeri, Karnataka, represented Indias religious volatility in 2015.

However, communal rioting cases in the country declined by a third, from 1,227 in 2014 — the year that Narendra Modi was voted Prime Minister — to 789 in 2015, according to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data.

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About 40 percent fewer Indians died or were injured — called “victims” in NCRB terminology in 2015 (1,174) than in 2014 (2,001).

Haryana, India’s 17th largest state by population, reported the most (201) communal rioting cases in 2015, with 200 dead or injured, followed by Karnataka (163 cases, 203 victims), Maharashtra (80 cases, 104 victims) and Bihar (79 cases, 146 victims).

In Haryana, the rate of riots remained unchanged at 7.5 rioting cases per million population.Karnataka reported an increase in riot incidence, from 0.6 rioting cases per million to 2.6 rioting cases per million, while the cases quadrupled, from 38 in 2014 to 163 in 2015.

Kerala had more “political riots” than any other state, with more than half of India’s cases.

Jharkhand reduced its rate of riots, from 10 rioting cases per million to two per million. The overwhelmingly tribal state became five times more communally peaceful in 2015 compared to 2014 when assembly elections were conducted, with communal rioting cases dropping 80 percent from 349 to 68.

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Thirty-five years after rioting cases in India peaked at 160 per million in 1980, the country witnessed a relatively peaceful decade with respect to communal violence, especially in the period 2003-2012, when riot rate dropped to 50 cases per million.

The incidence of riots has increased over the last three years to 60 cases per million, or 20 percent more frequent compared to the last decade.

Rioting cases increased 251 percent over six decades, from 20,529 in 1953 to 76,131 in 2015 — the highest ever. For 2014 and 2015, we have included in “riots” crimes listed under “unlawful assembly” because they were clubbed together in previous years.

Of 76,131 rioting cases registered in 2015, 65,255 were filed under sections 147 to 153 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), meaning offences relating to riots, while 10,876 cases were filed under sections 141 and 142 of the IPC, meaning offences relating to unlawful assembly. As many as 74,633 cases in 2012 and 72,126 in 2013 were registered under riots and unlawful assembly.

Cases filed only under “riots” have decreased between 2014 and 2015, while those relating to “unlawful assembly” have increased.

Mass unrest nationwide in 2015 by dominant caste groups — Patels in Gujarat and Jats in Haryana– likely resulted in the high cases of “unlawful assembly”.

In absolute terms, Bihar had more riots than any other state with 13,311 cases registered in 2015, followed by Maharashtra (8,336), Uttar Pradesh (6,813), Karnataka (6,602).

The assembly elections in Bihar in 2015, and the parting of ways of the 25-year-old coalition of the Janata Dal-United (JD-U) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) resulted in a rise in riots in the Hindi heartland state over three years from 2013, the Indian Express reported in August 2015.

Kerala had 164 rioting cases per million population — the country’s highest rate — followed by Bihar (129) and Karnataka (126).

While Jharkhand reported eight caste-based rioting cases per million population, Tamil Nadu reported six.

Bihar reported more “agrarian riots” cases than any other state, (1,156), or 43 percent of cases in the country.Bihar had more riots than any other state with 13,311 cases registered in 2015, followed by Maharashtra (8,336), Uttar Pradesh (6,813), Karnataka (6,602).

The assembly elections in Bihar in 2015, and the parting of ways of the 25-year-old coalition of the Janata Dal-United (JD-U) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) resulted in a rise in riots in the Hindi heartland state over three years from 2013, the Indian Express reported in August 2015.

Kerala had 164 rioting cases per million population — the country’s highest rate — followed by Bihar (129) and Karnataka (126). (IANS)

  • Enakshi

    This news is really sad and disturbing

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Population Threatened by Climate Change-Triggered Flooding about Three Times Higher than Previously Thought

And if emissions of heat-trapping gases continue unabated and Antarctic ice melts more in a worst-case scenario, around 500 million people could be

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Population, Climate, Flooding
Cars drive through a flooded road at the entrance to Long Beach Island in Ship Bottom, N.J. on Oct. 11, 2019. VOA

The number of people threatened by climate change-triggered flooding is about three times higher than previously thought, a new study says. But it’s not because of more water. Population.

It’s because the land, especially in Asia and the developing world, is several feet lower than what space-based radar has calculated, according to a study in the journal Nature Communications Tuesday.

So instead of 80 million people living in low-lying areas that would flood annually by 2050 as the world warms, this new study finds the population at risk is closer to 300 million people.

And if emissions of heat-trapping gases continue unabated and Antarctic ice melts more in a worst-case scenario, around 500 million people could be at risk by the end of the century, according to the study by Climate Central , a New Jersey based non-profit of scientists and journalists.

Population, Climate, Flooding
It’s because the land, especially in Asia and the developing world, is several feet lower than what space-based radar has calculated, according to a study. Pixabay

Space-based radar says 170 million are at risk in that scenario.

For big picture global mapping of flooding threats, the go-to technology for elevation is NASA’s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission . But that doesn’t accurately show ground, instead mistaking rooftops and tree canopies for ground with an average error of 6.5 feet (2 meters), said Climate Central chief executive officer Ben Strauss, a scientist who studies sea level rise.

For the United States, much of Europe and Australia, this is not a problem because those areas use airborne lidar radar, which is more accurate about true elevation. But in flood prone Asia and other places that’s not an option, Strauss said.

So Climate Central used the shuttle radar, artificial intelligence and 23 different variables to create a computer model that is more accurate in globally mapping elevation, Strauss said. They then tested it against the airplane-generated data in the United States and Australia and found this computer model was accurate, he said.

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“This is a far greater problem than we understood,” Strauss said. “Far more people live in risky places today than we thought and the problem only multiplies in the future.”

He said the new model found “a huge difference” in elevation in places such as Shanghai, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok, Jakarta and Mumbai.

Five outside sea level rise experts said the study highlighted a problem with current data, especially in Asia.

“This study represents very significant progress in the understanding of the risk which climate change-related sea level will cause for hundreds of million of people before the end of this century,” said Jean-Pascal van Ypersele of the Universite catholique de Louvain in Belgium.  “If hundreds or even tens of millions of people are flooded in Asia or Africa, it will create social and economic disruptions on a huge scale.”

Population, Climate, Flooding

So instead of 80 million people living in low-lying areas that would flood annually by 2050 as the world warms, this new study finds the population at risk is closer to 300 million people. Pixabay

University of Colorado’s Steve Nerem said the problem is real, but he isn’t sold on the new model yet, partly because it is based on the shuttle radar to begin with.

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It does highlight an issue that needs to be fixed, said Katy Serafin at the University of Florida. “The longer we wait to address this, the less time we will have to develop adaptive and sustainable solutions to coastal flooding.” (VOA)