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Sanskrit is ‘mool-bhasha’ of Hindi language, Urdu developed in military camps: Dr. Pratibha Mudliar

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By Nithin Sridhar

Hindi language is among the most widespread languages in India. It is not only a mother tongue for at least 258 million Indians (according to 2001 census), it is also a link language that connects millions of Indians from different regions of India.

Hindi traces its origins in Sanskrit language and the current form has been developed over more than a thousand years. A language, says Dr. Pratibha R. Mudliar, can be distinguished into Standardized version and dialects which are in common usage. When a language is standardized according to the rules of grammar, then such a standardized language will no longer undergo any evolution or transformation. But, the dialects of that language continue to evolve and slowly they give rise to newer languages.

Dr. Pratibha R. Mudliar is the Chairman and Professor of Hindi Department in the University of Mysore.

Hindi
Dr. Pratibha Mudliar

Speaking exclusively to NewsGram about the development of Hindi, Dr. Mudliar, said: “The origins can be traced to Sanskrit. From Vedic Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit languages were formed. Pali was the language of the Buddhists and books like Tripitakas were composed in that language. After Prakrit was formed, it further underwent four divisions into Maharashtri Prakrit, Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit, Magadhi Prakrit, and Shauraseni Prakrit. From these four forms of Prakrit four forms of Apabhramsha language were formed. From the Shauraseni branch of Apabhramsha language, thus formed, one can trace the direct evolution of modern Hindi.

When asked to elaborate regarding evolution of Hindi from Apabhramsha language to its present form, she said that the evolution could be divided into four stages: Adikal (the Early Period), Bhaktikal (the Devotional Period), Ritikal (the Scholastic Period) and Adhunikkal (the Modern Period).

The Adikal began in 1075 CE and lasted till 1375 CE. Most of the literature of that period like those of Prithviraja Raso were all written in Apabhramsha languages. But, one could see usage of a language similar to modern Hindi (Khariboli) in the works of Amir Khusrow. Later, in the works of Kabir also we could find similarity to modern form. Thus, she added: “one can trace the roots of modern Hindi directly to the works of Amir Khusrow.”

The Bhaktikal extended from 1375-1700 CE. During this period, Tulasidas wrote in Awadhi, Surdas in Braj, and Kabir in Sadu-kari (or mixed) language. These different languages like Awadi, Braj, etc., which are now considered as dialects, were evolved out of Apabhramsha forms.

The Ritikal extended from 1700 CE to 1900 CE. This period also saw composition of many literatures in Braj, Awadhi, etc. More importantly, it was during this period in 1885 CE that Bhartendu Harishchandra started writing in Kharboli dialect from which the modern Standardized Hindi later evolved. Thus, she said, Bhartendu was often called as the father of modern Hindi literature. The period after 1900 CE was considered as Adhunikkal. Therefore, she concluded, the Modern Hindi or Modern Standard Hindi had evolved from Khariboli, which in turn had evolved from Apabhramsha.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIDynRJe3xI&feature=youtu.be

Speaking about the various dialects of Hindi and their geographical origins, she said that Hindi could be divided into Pashchimi Hindi (western) and Poorvi Hindi (eastern). The eastern Hindi mainly consists of dialects of Awadhi and Bhojpuri, whereas the western Hindi mainly consists of Braj, Khariboli, etc. She added that Awadhi was mainly prevalent in Ayodhya, Lucknow, Meerut and surrounding areas and similarly, Braj was more prevalent in Agra, Mathura, and surrounding areas.

When asked about the evolution of Urdu and Hindi’s relationship with Urdu, Dr. Mudliar, said: Urdu was basically a language of the camps, i.e. a language that was developed in the military camps.” She elaborated that when the Mughals had come into India, they had brought the Persian language with them. But, because they could not interact with the locals who spoke Khariboli dialect, the language of Urdu was born as a mix of Persian and Khariboli languages. This Urdu was also called as ‘Hindavi’.

Later, when the influence of Persian and Arabic words became more prominent, then Urdu broke away from Hindavi as a separate language. On the other hand, a desire for pure Hindi resulted in the composition of literature in Standardized Hindi derived from Khariboli starting from Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi in the beginning of 20th century. Thus, Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu later developed into separate languages.

Therefore, concluded Dr. Mudliar that Modern Urdu and Mordern Hindi both had their origin in Khariboli dialect. But, the former was more influenced by Persian and Arabic, while the latter was the Sanskritized version of Khariboli.

Speaking about the influence of Sanskrit on Hindi, she said that Sanskrit was the “mool-basha” or root-language for Hindi and Hindi drew heavily from it. The usage of a large number of Sanskrit words called as ‘Tatsam’ was a good example that demonstrated this. Then, the grammatical structures and elements like cases had all been derived from Sanskrit as well.

When asked whether it is possible to impart higher technical education in Hindi language as demanded by certain sections of society and whether Hindi is equipped to take up this challenge, Dr. Mudliar said that Hindi could definitely be used as a medium for imparting technical knowledge.

She added that there was a commission called ‘Vaigyanik Tatha Takniki Shabdavali Aayog’ of the central government, which was working tirelessly for compiling and creating technical terminologies in Hindi. Hence, Hindi can definitely be used to convey technical knowledge. Moreover, the teachers may also borrow technical terms from English and use it wherever necessary while keeping Hindi as the medium of instruction.

 

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Akshay Kumar Wants To Be A Part Of Hindi Remake Of Marathi Film “Balak Palak”

Akshay Kumar says he wants to be a part of the Hindi remake of Marathi film “Balak Palak”

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Akshay Kumar: ‘Marathi Cinema Is Bolder Than Hindi. flickr

Akshay Kumar, who has turned presenter for “Chumbak”, believes Marathi cinema is way ahead of Bollywood when it comes exploring complex stories. “The content of Marathi cinema is no doubt better than Hindi cinema. Also, they (Marathi cinema) are much bolder. I have seen ‘Balak Palak’ and I have enjoyed watching it. It is a bold film, they (Marathi cinema) create (good) content and that too bold,” Akshay said during the trailer launch of “Chumbak”.

The film, directed by Sandeep Modi, stars Swanand Kirkire and teen actors Sangram Desai and Sahil Jadhav. “This film has travelled to several film festivals and got lot of acclaim. That has not happened with my films. My films have not gone to festivals and I felt I should give my name to this film as the content is really good. I have been acting for 28 years but I haven’t seen such a beautiful and real performance like that of Swanand Kirkire.”

Not for money

Actor-producer Akshay Kumar says that he did not produce the forthcoming Marathi film “Chumbak” with the intention to earn money at box office. Asked what prompted him to associate his name with “Chumbak”, Akshay said: “I don’t want to earn money by producing this film. I do lot of films through which I earn money and this film is not one of them. This film will show you right path. I have seen many films, but not every time, I want to associate myself with the film, but this film touched my heart. The kind of message that this film gives, these are the things what I would like to teach my children. I feel people should pass on this to their children so that they can learn what is right and what is wrong.”

The actor said he is keen to be a part of meaningful films. “I could have done ‘Rowdy Rathore’ and earned three times the money, I earned for ‘PadMan’. The idea is not about earning, but I thought of talking about women’s problems. I can earn money by doing other kind of films, but I want to do these kind of films.”

Akshay, on his part, believes the market for regional cinema is growing. “‘Sairat’ has done great business. Even Riteish Deshmukh’s last Marathi film did well. I am not looking for business in this film (‘Chumbak’).”

The message

About the message given in “Chumbak”, Akshay said: “I feel parents should take their children to watch this film because it tells you that there are two ways to lead a life, one is right path and another is wrong. In that, you have to choose what path is correct for you and that’s what the journey of the characters in this film.”

The film, starring renowned lyricist Kirkire, is a story of friendship between a 15-year-old table-cleaning-waiter-boy Baalu and his chance encounter with a 45-year-old mentally slow man Prasanna that forces him to make a choice between his dreams and morality.

Akshay Kumar says he wants to be a part of the Hindi remake of Marathi film “Balak Palak”
Akshay Kumar says he wants to be a part of the Hindi remake of Marathi film “Balak Palak”. Wikimedia commons

Remaking a film

Akshay Kumar says he wants to be a part of the Hindi remake of Marathi film “Balak Palak”, which was produced by his close actor-producer friend Riteish Deshmukh. “There was a film which I watched…’Balak Palak’… and it’s really a bold film. I think Marathi cinema is much bolder in its content and doesn’t shy away from presenting taboo subjects. I would like to remake that film.”

Akshay has acted in socially-relevant films like “PadMan” and “Toilet- Ek Prem Katha”. Asked if he wants to continue doing such films, he quipped: “Now I am also going to do one more social film called ‘Housefull 4’. I like doing all kinds of cinema. I don’t have a particular image and I don’t want to tag myself. I keep on breaking my image all the time and it always comes as a challenge for me. As an actor also, it keeps you going,” he added.

Also read: Actor Naseeruddin Shah Says, 50 Years From Now Cinema Halls Would Be Found In Museums

The actor will be next seen in Reema Kagti’s historical period sports drama “Gold” and Shankar’s science fiction film “2.0”. (IANS)