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By Nithin Sridhar
Youth are continuously exposed to various social hardships. Youth especially from disadvantaged backgrounds are routinely exposed to alcohol and drugs and subjected to physical and emotional harassment. These hardships result in many of them dropping out of schools or involving themselves in various delinquent activities.
According to the figures released by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) around 43,000 cases were registered against Juveniles in 2013. The highest number of Juveniles were apprehended for theft, hurt and burglary. This clearly shows the urgent need to handle the issue of youth delinquency in a delicate but effective manner.
Self control as a solution
In a working paper published this May by the US National Bureau of Economic Research titled “Thinking, Fast and Slow: Efforts to Reduce Youthful Crime in Chicago”, it has been shown that interventions that help youth control their automatic behavior will lead to reduced youth dropouts and delinquencies.
Automaticity or automatic responses refers to the spontaneous response pattern that an individual exhibits when faced with various situations. These automatic responses are exhibited without allowing the mind to analyze the details of the situations. Hence, these spontaneous responses become a pattern and when a person applies it to certain high stake situations, it may lead to negative consequences.
The paper cites the example of a disadvantaged youth who may have to face street bullies every day. Hence, his automatic response would be one to defy authority, as submission to bullies will result in more harassment in future. Such a youth would find it difficult to adjust in school to the authority of a teacher.
Though, the situation in a school and in the street are quite different, the automatic response of the youth will be one of defiance and hence he may eventually dropout. The paper concludes that, through interventions that allow youths to slow down their automatic responses, a person will be able to make better choices based on the situation. In other words, by making a person gain better self-control i.e. control over his mind and behavior, he will be able to have better control over his actions and hence its consequences.
Automatic responses and juvenile delinquency
The study utilized the Chicago-based program by the organization Youth Guidance called Becoming a Man (BAM) for its intervention in two different studies and analyzed their results. BAM is basically a dropout and violence prevention program for at-risk male students in grades 7-12 that is designed to teach them impulse control, emotional self-regulation and developing a sense of personal responsibility and integrity. In one of the interventions involving 2,740 males in the 7th through 10th grades in 18 public schools in 2009-10, the arrests over the program year reduced by 44% for violent crimes and 36% for non-violent, non-property, non-drug crimes. This clearly depicts the positive role that intervention activities can have in imparting better control over their decisions and hence positively impact their lives.
Another paper published in 2010, titled “A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety,” concludes that children with poor Self-control were more likely to have drug and alcohol problems as adults. Such people were also more susceptible to money related to problems as they were poor at managing their wealth. Also, they were more likely to commit crimes. Hence, developing better self-control in childhood was seen as a key factor for a better adulthood in terms of health, wealth and social life.
Self control in Indian tradition
It is interesting to note that, though these findings regarding the importance of learning self-control by children are being seen as latest scientific revelations, these very principles were taught by the Indian sages many milleniums ago. The Dharmic conception of human life divided an Individual’s life into four stages- Brahmacharya (Student), Grihasta (Householder), Vanaprasta (Retired) and Sanyasa (Renouncer).
The Brahmacharya is the stage of learning, it is given at most importance. The teachings imparted during this stage will shape the kind of adult, a child will turn out to be. Hence, the Dharmic conception of Brahmacharya involved not only the teaching of secular subjects, but also imparting lessons in ethics, morality and spirituality. A student was supposed to lead a life of discipline and hard-work by practicing various tenets of Dharma.
One of the most important tenet that a student was supposed to practice was “Indriya Nigraha”. “Indriya” means “mind and the senses” and “Nigraha” means “Control or Restraint”. Manu Smriti (2.175) for example says that “a student must control his mind and the senses and practice all his duties”. The Smriti further states that a student must control his internal impulses like lust, anger, jealousy etc. These instructions and their subsequent practice by the students would help a student to overcome negative influences and drive his life towards positive outcomes. Such, a student will be able to lead a life free of crimes and addictions and pursue higher pursuit of knowledge and happiness. Hence, self-control is the key for the better future of our youths.
Achieving soft, beautiful and happy skin is a dream for most of us or at least a long-pending item on our wish list. While there are lot of suggestions, a laundry list of do's and don'ts to follow, there are some basics that don't change. We have to understand that happy skin is a holistic process that requires one to work on building healthy habits combined with good skincare.
Here's a ready reckoner by ITC Fiama of tried and tested skincare habits that will serve as a reminder that skincare doesn't need to be complicated, it just needs to be consistent.
* Cleanse & Moisturise -- The first and the simplest step towards healthy skin is regular cleansing and moisturising, it is advisable to use a moisturizing body soap that ensures your skin gets the right nutrients and remains supple and nourished. A great product suited to this requirement is Fiama Gel Bathing Bar, which is enriched with nature's goodness. Fiama's bathing bars come in 5 variants and they help moisturize the skin making it appear soft, happy and bouncy.
The first and the simplest step towards healthy skin is regular cleansing and moisturising. | Photo by Humphrey Muleba on Unsplash
* Balanced Diet -- Healthy skin is an outcome of a balanced diet. The food we eat provides the building blocks for healthy functioning of our bodies. Our diet has everything to do with the health of our skin. The nutrients, minerals, and proteins found in food support collagen production and healthy cell membranes, and protect skin from harmful stressors, such as UV exposure.
Healthy skin is an outcome of a balanced diet. | Photo by Sam Moqadam on Unsplash
* Smile -- While most of us hate the idea of having crow's eyes and lines while we smile. We rarely realize the benefits of a simple smile. When we smile the blood flow gets better, and the skin receives more oxygen and nutrients. This can help you develop a healthier complexion alternately it also leaves you stress free making you look happy and radiant.
When we smile the blood flow gets better, and the skin receives more oxygen and nutrients. | Photo by Lesly Juarez on Unsplash
* Drink Enough H20 -- With our bodies comprising of 70 per cent water, drinking sufficient amount of water is the easiest way to keep your skin healthy and hydrated. Drinking adequate water helps flush out toxins from our bodies, preventing pimples and acne and boosting the skin's elasticity. No wonder, water is called the elixir of life.
Drinking adequate water helps flush out toxins from our bodies, preventing pimples and acne and boosting the skin's elasticity. | Photo by Bluewater Sweden on Unsplash
* Move Your Body -- Along with cleansing and proper nutrition, another aspect which is important for happy skin is movement. When we move or burn calories, the body produces chemicals called endorphins. These endorphins interact with the receptors in the brain and trigger positive feelings and happy thoughts. This feeling of pure happiness and joy reflects on the skin, thus having the power to completely change your mood and keep you and your skin beaming. (IANS/ MBI)
When we move or burn calories, the body produces chemicals called endorphins. | Photo by Joanna Nix-Walkup on Unsplash
Keywords: Skin, soft, happy, healthy, food, move, calories, water, smile, moisturise, water, cleanse
It is true that street performances has been existing in India since ancient times. But, it was Philip Astley who brought the concept of circus in India in the 1880s. Interestingly, Astley is known as the father of modern circus.
Birth of the Great Indian Circus
In 1879, the Royal Italian Circus by Giuseppe Chiarini came to India. Before any of his shows, he would often say that India did not have a proper circus, and apparently, the country would have to wait for many years in order to develop the "circus trend".
Once, Balasahib Patwardhan, who was the king of the Kurundwad state of Sangli (today's Kolhapur) went to watch the circus. He was accompanied by Vishnupant Chatre, who was the keeper of his stable and also a riding master at the stables. As it was ritual, before starting with any performance, Chiarini used to challenge the audience by saying, "a thousand British Indian rupees and a horse would be given to anyone who would repeat his daring effects within six months". Interestingly, this time, the challenge was accepted by Chatre, and he announced that he will perform the same in Kurundwad within three months. And if he fails, he promised Chiarini that he would return "ten thousand British Indian rupees and top ten horses. On March 20, 1880, Chatre came to perform his circus at the Kurundwad Palace Grounds. But Chiarini did not come to see it.
Soon after this, Vishnupant Chatre bought most of the circus equipment from Chiarini, and within a year, he formed a new circus company called the "Great Indian Circus". This is referred to as the first circus company in India. Chatre's Great Indian Circus toured various parts of India and the world. Later on, Chatre merged his circus company with his cousin's company to launch a new company by the name of "Karlekar Grand Circus".
Other Famous Circuses of India
After the coming of Karlekar Grand Circus, many circuses came into being in India. In 1904, the Malabar Grand Circus, which was the first circus company in Kerala came into being under the leadership of Pariyali Kannan. Another circus named the Great Royal Circus was started in 1909. Though, its previous name was Madhuskar's Circus. One of the famous circuses of India was also the Grand Bombay Circus which was founded in the year 1920 by Baburao Kadam. Since a long time, tradition of circus as an art has been prevalent in India, though slight decline in its practice is evident now.
Keywords: India, Circus, Tradition, Art, Performance, Great Indian Circus, Philip Astley, Culture
By- Naman Rastogi
The first thing to understand about API security testing is that it is not a one-size-fits-all process. Testers must take into account the scope of the project, as well as the specific needs of developers and end-users. This article will provide you with some basic guidelines for an API security testing program. It will also outline some API security tests that you should consider including in your API testing process.
API security testing is a process that checks API functions for security vulnerabilities. These tests are intended to identify problems with the API's design, functionality, and implementation. API security testing is a proactive way to check the API for potential exploits.
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Tests To Include in API Security Testing
The API's parameter tampering test is a way to check any API calls that contain parameters for known attack patterns. The API security testing tool you use should provide warning alerts when it finds these types of vulnerability points.
Parameter tampering occurs because developers aren't properly securing the input data before it enters an API call from another application or web service. This gives attackers the ability to tamper with API input data. You can checkout this detailed guide on How to Perform Web Application Testing
Testing for API parameter tampering can include looking at all variables within API calls and checking whether they need to exist or not. In your tests, you'll also want to check how values are passed into API calls and whether or not they can be changed once data is passed in.
Also Read: No Halfway Deal In Security
Input fuzzing is one of the most basic kinds of testing you can perform on an API. It occurs when attackers send API inputs that contain random or unexpected values. This test will show you whether the API can handle random data or not. It should do so without impeding its performance, but rather enhancing it.
The API security testing tool you use should allow for several different types of fuzzing:
●Data Format Fuzzing: An input format can be modified to see how the API responds when an invalid value is received.
●Range Fuzzing: Some APIs only accept certain numeric ranges from authorized users, such as credit card numbers and phone numbers. You should check whether your API functions properly under this type of condition.
The first thing to understand about API security testing is that it is not a one-size-fits-all process.Getastra
●Boundary Fuzzing: This type of fuzzing should be used to check for boundaries within the API itself. For example, checking if a string is between certain character lengths, determining whether it's possible to pass in an empty parameter value that will still produce valid results, etc.
Testing for API input fuzzing can also include randomizing parameters that are always required by the API function being tested (e.g., session IDs). If these values don't need to exist, hackers will be able to bypass any checks made by the developers who have implemented strict guidelines regarding API usage.
Another API security test you should consider is to check for unhandled API functions. Unhandled API methods are those that developers didn't code into the API. This happens either because they were unaware of their necessity or simply forgot about them.
Allowing access to these functions creates a vulnerability point in your API's functionality. Unfortunately, attackers can use these vulnerabilities as attack vectors. API security testing should search for unhandled API methods and alert you to their presence.
This API security testing method will help you determine how well the API performs under different input conditions without any malicious actors trying to tamper with it.
A final API security test you should consider is to check for possible injection attacks. This type of vulnerability occurs when user-defined input data can be inserted into API calls as part of the API's scripting language.
Injecting attacks have been a long-time security threat for APIs. This is because they allow attackers to use any type of data that can be manipulated and inserted into an API call. They should ideally only allow what is provided by regular users or applications trying to access the API.
The API security testing process goes beyond just finding the presence of common API attack vectors like cross-site scripting (XSS), SQL injection, remote code execution, and much more. It also looks for other API features that can put your system at risk if they aren't properly secured with input validation defenses or strict API security features.
Though API security testing may seem daunting, it's a necessary step in securing your systems and data. As the saying goes, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! If you don't have time to do this yourself, you can always seek help from security experts. The costs are justified by the benefits. So, make sure to conduct API security testing if you haven't already!
Disclaimer: (This article is sponsored and include some commercial links)