Friday April 19, 2019
Home India Strong Monsoo...

Strong Monsoons reversing India’s 50-year Dry Spell: Study

0
//
rain
Low lying areas, patches of roads, paddy fields and several houses have been inundated by the rain water in Tripura. VOA

BOSTON, July 25, 2017: Indian summer monsoons have strengthened over the past 15 years, reversing a 50-year dry period during which northern and central India received relatively little rainfall, an MIT study has found.

Indian summer monsoons bring rainfall to the country each year between June and September.

Researchers found that since 2002 a drying trend has given way to a much wetter pattern, with stronger monsoons supplying much-needed rain, along with powerful, damaging floods, to the populous north central region of India.

A shift in India’s land and sea temperatures may partially explain this increase in monsoon rainfall, according to the study published in the journal Nature Climate Change.

Researchers note that starting in 2002, nearly the entire Indian subcontinent has experienced very strong warming, reaching between 0.1 and 1 degree Celsius per year. Meanwhile, a rise in temperatures over the Indian Ocean has slowed significantly.

According to Chien Wang, a senior research scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US, this sharp gradient in temperatures – high over land, and low over surrounding waters – is a perfect recipe for whipping up stronger monsoons.

“Climatologically, India went through a sudden, drastic warming, while the Indian Ocean, which used to be warm, all of a sudden slowed its warming,” Wang said.

“This may have been from a combination of natural variability and anthropogenic influences, and we are still trying to get to the bottom of the physical processes that caused this reversal,” he said.

The Indian monsoon phenomenon is the longest recorded monsoon system in meteorology, researchers said.

From yearly measurements, scientists had observed that, since the 1950s, the monsoons were bringing less rain to north central India – a drying period that did not seem to let up, compared to a similar monsoon system over Africa and East Asia, which appeared to reverse its drying trend in the 1980s.

However, researchers found that India has already begun to reverse its dry spell.

The team tracked India’s average daily monsoon rainfall from 1950 to the present day, using six global precipitation datasets, each of which aggregate measurements from the thousands of rain gauges in India, as well as measurements of rainfall and temperature from satellites monitoring land and sea surfaces.

Between 1950 and 2002, they found that north central India experienced a decrease in daily rainfall average, of 0.18 millimetres per decade, during the monsoon season.

To their surprise, they discovered that since 2002, precipitation in the region has revived, increasing daily rainfall average by 1.34 millimetres per decade.

“The Indian monsoon is considered a textbook, clearly defined phenomenon, and we think we know a lot about it, but we do not,” Wang said. (IANS)

Next Story

Over 7,000 New Marine Species Discovered from Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean

The new species, also included acidobacteria -- a natural medicinal phylum with the CRISPR gene editing system -- raising hope for the development of new drugs

0
marine species
The new species, also included acidobacteria -- a natural medicinal phylum with the CRISPR gene editing system -- raising hope for the development of new drugs. Pixabay

Over 7,000 new marine species have been discovered from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, shedding new light on understanding of microbial biodiversity in the seas.

The team from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), discovered over 7,000 new biofilm-forming species and 10 new bacterial phyla, breaking the existing belief that the world has only 35,000 marine microbial species and 80 bacterial phyla, Xinhua news agency reported.

The new species, also included acidobacteria — a natural medicinal phylum with the CRISPR gene editing system — raising hope for the development of new drugs.

marine species
It is the first ocean species found to contain the gene-editing system CRISPR, and offers resistance to foreign plasmids or phages and contains gene-editing capabilities, the report said. Pixabay

“The discovery of new marine microbial species has not only improved our understanding of ocean biodiversity, but more importantly, these species have big potential, both in terms of facilitating our understanding of lives and offering new clues to our search of new treatments for diseases,” said lead author Qian Peiyuan, Professor of the Department of Ocean Science at HKUST.

ALSO READ: Goa Police Ensures Strict Monitoring of Cash Transactions at Goa Casinos Ahead of Polls

Acidobacteria, previously known to exist in terrestrial soils, has been used for developing novel antibiotics and anti-tumour drugs due to its high level of biosynthetic gene clusters.

It is the first ocean species found to contain the gene-editing system CRISPR, and offers resistance to foreign plasmids or phages and contains gene-editing capabilities, the report said.

For the study, published in the scientific journal Nature Communications, the team sourced water samples across the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. (IANS)