Brave the summer heat in style with added comfort by dressing up in breathable fabrics like linen and chambray, experts suggest.
Sunil Mehra, Founder and Designer at Sunil Mehra and Akshay Narvekar, Founder at Bombay Shirt Company, have listed summer fabrics for men:
* Linen: Linen is considered as one of the best fabrics for summer. It is made of flax plant fibers and is a good absorbent of moisture. The material is loosely woven and is extremely lightweight and breathable. Shirts and formal suits made of linen are well-liked during summer as it remains cool and absorbs sweat. Choose among soothing shades like greys, sky blues and you are all cool in the fiery heat.
* Cotton: Made of a cotton plant, cotton has a soft touch. Even when blended with other fabrics, it is considered as a great option during hot weather. Our body breathes in cotton apparels and combat heat. One of the important features of this fabric is that it is easily washable and is durable.
* Chambray: This soft, luminous and light weight cotton fabric is a great choice for that fresh yet elegant look, while still keeping it cool from the inside. Being look-wise similar to denim, you can pair it with chinos and suitable accessories for that smooth, versatile ensemble that works from desk to dinner.
* Twill: A popular weave, twill stands out for its distinctive diagonal ribbed texture. Twill fabrics are soft, more durable and drape easier as well. These shirts work well for situations that call for smart casuals which are perfect for summer getaways.
* Denim: A sturdy and blunt fabric, often dyed with indigo, denim is in vogue this season. Denim shirts, however, are softer and lighter than jeans and work very well for a number of occasions. Don that classic denim shirt for a smart, cool and a timeless look. You cannot go wrong with this one.
* Silk: An abstract of luxury, silk is one of the lightest fabrics one can go for this season. The delicacy and luxe inherent with it give the wearer a refined, elevated look at all times. Being light weight makes it easy under the sun. Suitable for dress-up occasions, silk can be one of the best shirt fabrics for summers. BollywoodCountry
Both China and India started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s. Different policies and historical circumstances have, however, led them to different educational outcomes, with China outperforming India not just in terms of its percentage of literate population and enrollment rates at all levels of education, but also in terms of number of world-class institutions in higher education, and greater research output.
The roots of China’s successful education system date back to the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), which unintentionally expanded access to the primary education through democratising the schooling system, which was previously elitist in character, thus addressing the problem of mass illiteracy.
In contrast, India continued to focus on its higher education system since independence and only realised the importance of basic education in 1986, keeping it behind China and many other countries in Asia in educational development. In terms of enrollment, China reached a 100 percent gross enrollment rate (GER) in its primary education in 1985, whereas, India attained that level only in 2000.
In terms of secondary school enrollment, India and China both started at the similar rates in 1985, with about 40 percent of their population enrolled in secondary schools. However, due to a wider base of primary school students, the rate of increase in China has been much faster than in India, with 99 percent secondary enrollment rate in China and 79 percent in India in 2017.
India is closing in on the Chinese rate in terms of access to education, but on the literacy level front, there is a huge gap in the percentage of literate populations in the two countries. In the age group of 15-24 years, India scores 104th rank on literacy and numeracy indicator, compared to China’s 40th rank.
The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which assesses after every three years the domain knowledge of 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, science and finance, revealed that students in China performed above the OECD average in 2015. Moreover, one in four students in China are top performers in mathematics, having an ability to formulate complex situations mathematically. Further, China outperforms all the other participating countries in financial literacy, by having a high ability to analyse complex finance products. For India, the comparable data is not available as it was not a participating country in PISA 2015.
However, in India, the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2017 provides data for rural youth, aged 14-18, with respect to their abilities to lead productive lives as adults. According to this survey, only about half of the 14-year-old children in the sample could read English sentences, and more than half of the students surveyed could not do basic arithmetic operations, like division. For basic financial calculations, such as managing a budget or making a purchase decision, less than two-thirds could do the correct calculations.
With regard to the higher education system, both India and China dominate the number of tertiary degree holders because of their large population size, but when it comes to the percentage of the population holding tertiary degrees, only about 10 per cent and 8 per cent of the population possess university degrees in China and India, respectively. By contrast, in Japan, almost 50 per cent of the population holds a tertiary degree, and in the United States, 31 per cent of the population hold a tertiary degree.
In terms of the international recognition of universities, the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Ranking for 2019 places seven of the China’s universities in the top 200, compared to none for India. The global university rankings, which are based on various performance metrices, pertaining to teaching, research, citations, international outlook and industrial income, shows progress for several of China’s low-ranked universities, largely driven by improvements in its citations.
In fact, the Tsinghua University has overtaken the National University of Singapore (NUS) to become the best university in Asia due to improvements in its citations, institutional income and increased share of international staff, students and co-authored publications.
While India has progressed in terms of massification of education, there is still a lot which needs to be done when it comes to catching up with the China’s educational outcomes. China’s early start in strengthening its primary and secondary education systems has given it an edge over India in terms of higher education. Moreover, Chinese government strategies are designed in line with the criterion used in major world university rankings, especially emphasis is on the two factors which weigh heavily in the rankings — publications and international students.
The relentless publications drive, which is very evident in China, is weak in India and has led to a growing gap in the number of publications contributed by the two countries. Further, China enrolled about 292,611 foreign students in 2011 from 194 countries, while India currently only has 46,144 foreign students enrolled in its higher education institutions, coming from 166 countries. The large number of international enrollments in China is a reflection of its state policies granting high scholarships to foreign students.
To catch up with China, India needs to lay emphasis on improving its educational outcomes. Massification drive for education has helped India raise its student enrollments, but a lot needs to be done when it comes to global recognition for its universities. Further, it needs to focus on building the foundation skills which are acquired by students at the school age, poor fundamental skills flow through the student life, affecting adversely the quality of education system. (IANS)