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Doris Lessing who won a Nobel Prize in Literature

London (CNN)- At five o'clock in the morning, the esteemed 86-year-old astrophysicist Jim Peebles was woken suddenly by the telephone ringing.

"In previous experience, the only phone calls at that time of night are bad news," he said. This one was great news. "The opening sentence from the caller was: 'The Nobel committee has voted to award you the Nobel Prize in Physics. Do you accept?'" Peebles recalled. The wording threw him. Who wouldn't accept a Nobel Prize? "You know the Bob Dylan fiasco?" he said during a phone interview with CNN. "That might have put the wind up them."The "fiasco" Peebles mentions refers to the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature, which was controversially given to an utterly unimpressed Dylan.Aside from being ever-presents on college campuses in the 1960s, little connects Peebles, an expert in theoretical cosmology, with Dylan. But one of the starkest contrasts might lie in their reactions to winning a Nobel -- and the songwriter is far from the only laureate whose crowning turned out to be an awkward affair.

The five committees are notoriously secretive, fiercely shielding their choices from the outside world -- including the laureates themselves, who are told of their victories just minutes before they are announced to the public.

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Photo by Wikimedia Commons.

Abdulrazak Gurnah- the Nobel Prize winner for Literature 2021.

Amid resurgent questions over cultural identity and colonial legacies, the Nobel Prize for Literature 2021 has been awarded to the first writer since Sir V.S. Naipaul (2001) to deal with the vexed impact of colonialism and the dilemmas of travellers - forced or voluntary - among differing cultural milieus.

And new Nobel laureate - the Zanzibar-born, UK-based academician-cum-writer Abdulrazak Gurnah has, in his academic career, guided plenty of research on Sir Vidia, as well as Salman Rushdie, G.V. Desani, Anthony Burgess, and above all, Joseph Conrad, whose most powerful works dwelt on colonialism and its "civilising legacy" - in its very heyday.

Gurnah is known for a relatively small but significant oeuvre dealing with the 'clash' between home-grown tradition and colonialism in Africa and elsewhere, the disruptions in cross-culture encounters, especially for refugees, and construction of identity and memory, leavened with autobiographical elements. Awarded for his "uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents", he is the second writer after Japanese-born but UK-settled Kazuo Ishiguro (2017) to be conferred the Nobel for his work in English, despite it not being his "mother" tongue, and the first writer originating from out of the "West" since China's Mo Yan in 2012.

Gurnah, who came to the UK in the 1960s to study and eventually settled there as a refugee, obtained his PhD in 1982. After a stint at a Nigerian university, he has been teaching in the UK and his academic focus is postcolonial writing and colonial discourse, with focus on Africa, the Caribbean and India. This is reflected in his works - 10 novels in slightly over two decades, and a collection of short stories.

Set in an unnamed East African coastal town at the end of colonial rule, his literary debut "Memory of Departure" (1987) is a coming of age novel, in first person narration, picturesquely depicting the local culture and the role of its dynamics in moulding the persona of the protagonist, who finally decides to strike out for bigger prospects.The autobiographical elements recur in "Pilgrim's Way" (1988), a humorous but a bit dark account of a Muslim Tanzanian student Daud's fight for survival against marginalisation in an English provincial town, with his wit, imagination, mental mockery and letter-writing being his only weapons against the cultural philistines - unlike his Biblical namesake (David).

"Here I sit, making a meal out of asking you to dinner. I don't really know how to do it. To have cultural integrity, I would have to send my aunt to speak, discreetly, to your aunt, who would then speak to your mother, who would speak to my mother, who would speak to my father, who would speak to me and then approach your mother, who would then approach you," goes one letter by Daud to a prospective date.

But it was "Paradise" (1994), shortlisted for the Booker Prize and Whitebread Prize, that brought Gurnah into the centre stage. Enter twining myth, storytelling, and East African and European literary traditions, it is the rite of passage of Yusuf pawned by his father to a rich merchant he must accompany on dangerous trading expeditions from the East African coast into the interior as European rule looms. The contrasts with Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" are telling.

In "Admiring Silence" (1996), Gurnah deals with how distance affects the memory of a "perfect" homeland. The story of a Zanzibari man, who marries an English woman and writes romantic tales of the Africa he "remembers", it goes on to depict what ensues when he returns home.

"Desertion" (2005) lives up to its name. A combination of two stories - the account of a bunch of young siblings in the period of transition for colonialism, and a half-century old story of colonial contacts, cross-cultural romance and its impact, the story brings both strands into one in the unforgiving present.

But Gurnah doesn't always remain in the past. "Gravel Heart" (2017) is set in the Zanzibar of the 1970s, and while it reprises some elements of "Pilgrims' Way", it does so in a more unsentimental and harsher way.

His most recent work is "Afterlives" (2020), which deals with a different, shorter but more harsher colonial past, as the conflict in Europe spreads its shadow on Africa.

A welcome move by the Swedish Academy, which will help to dissipate its reputation for "Euro centrism", Gurnah's Nobel is a welcome step recognising voices dealing with one of the most vexing and patently ambiguous historical conundrums of present times. IANS/JB

Keywords: Noble Prize, Literature, Gurnah, Arts, Euro-centrism.


David W.C. MacMillan, one of two winners of the Nobel Prize for chemistry, is interviewed outside the Frick Chemistry Laboratory and Department of Chemistry at Princeton University, Oct. 6, 2021, in Princeton, New Jersey

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Wednesday awarded the 2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to two scientists for their work - independently – in developing a new way of building molecules, a process with applications throughout industry.

Speaking in Stockholm, academy Secretary General Goran Hansson said chemists Benjamin List of Germany's Max Planck Institute and David MacMillan of Princeton University will split this year's prize.

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At a Stockholm news conference, the academy's Secretary General Goran K. Hansson and a panel of Nobel jurors presented one half of the physics prize to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Tuesday announced the Nobel prize in physics goes to three scientists for their work in helping to understand complex physical systems, work that has proved valuable in quantifying and predicting climate.

At a Stockholm news conference, the academy's Secretary General Goran K. Hansson and a panel of Nobel jurors presented one half of the physics prize to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann "for the physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming."

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