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The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) on Thursday announced that it has provided assistance to thousands of needy people across Afghanistan.
On Wednesday, the UNHCR in collaboration with a number of aid agencies provided essential household items to a total of 4,506 people in Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz and Balkh provinces, the UNHCR Afghanistan said in a Twitter post.
"In Herat (province) we provided cash grants to 665 persons to meet basic needs, and in Kabul and Herat 973 persons received cash for rent," the agency said.
The UN agencies together with aid agencies and a number of non-governmental organisations are racing against time to deliver life-saving aid and supplies to crisis-hit Afghans ahead of winter, reports Xinhua news agency.
The economic situation worsens in Afghanistan with higher unemployment rate and rising poverty.
Afghans make up one of the largest refugee populations worldwide.
There are 2.6 million registered Afghan refugees in the world, of whom 2.2 million are registered in Iran and Pakistan alone, according to the UNHCR.
Another 3.5 million people are internally displaced, having fled their homes searching for refuge within the country.
In light of the rapidly deteriorating security situation in 2021, the number of people fleeing will likely continue to rise, the Agency added.
Keywords: Afghanistan, Taliban, UNHCR, Economy, Society, Safety.
Amul, one of the most trusted dairy product brands by all levels of society in India. This trust has been built over decades purely based on the quality of the products. Founded in 1946, Amul is managed by the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), a cooperative body that comprises over 3.6 million milk producers of Gujarat today. It has not just won over the trust of its consumers but also of the local milk producers who before associating with Amul were exploited by traders and agents in the cities, as they were at their mercy as they had no other option than the milk being a perishable product. Thus Amul has enjoyed a long and ubiquitous presence in the hearts and minds of Indians.
Tribhuvandas Patel under the guidance of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the founding chairman of the organization. The establishment of Amul played a profound role in contributing to India's 'white revolution'. It became a turning point in India's journey as a milk producer from a milk-deficient nation to the world's largest milk producer, even surpassing the USA in 1998. The successor of Tribhuvandas Patel, Dr Verghes Kurien, the founder-chairman of the GCMMF is credited for the success of Amul's marketing; he also came to be known as the father of the white revolution in India.
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Today, Amul employs more than 15 million milk producers in their approximately 144,500 dairy cooperative societies across India. Along with its 7200 exclusive parlours in India, Amul also has its establishment in over 50 countries. In 1999, Amul was awarded the "Best of All" Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award " for maintaining the utmost level of quality in its plants. Amul even become the first Indian dairy firm to make a place in the global top 20 list released by Rabobank, a Dutch multinational banking and financial services company in 2020.
Amul is popular for its simple yet unique advertising that has been constant since its establishment. Amul's advertising mascot the "Amul Girl" hand-drawn cartoon of an Indian girl in a polka dot dress was made by Mr Sylvester Da Cunha. The brand has cleverly used the cartoon figure in its longest-running ad campaign, to instil an element of humour into its print ads. The Amul girl advertising campaign is often described as one of the best Indian advertising concepts. The Amul Girl even won the Guinness World Record for the longest-running advertisement campaign. The brand promotes all of its products under the same name –Amul, which leads to making its brand image stronger in the minds of its consumers. More brand visibility results in lesser marketing and advertising costs.
The company ensures that there is a product for each fragment of society to enjoy. Wikimedia CommonsWikimedia Commons
Amul is constantly working towards launching more innovative ideas in the market, be it making new products, creative marketing campaigns or challenging societal trends. It was the first-ever cooperative in the world to make skimmed milk powder from buffalo milk in the 1960s. What makes Amul such a strong, successful and trusted brand is not just its external structure with the consumers but also its internal three-tier cooperative structure which comprises of the village level that is affiliated with milk unions at the district level which in turn is federated to a milk federation at the state level.
ALSO READ: 15 amazing facts about Amul Butter Ads
It caters to the needs of all individual fragments in the society, from toddlers to kids to teenagers, men, and women, calorie-conscious, health-conscious, the company ensures that there is a product for each fragment to enjoy. Thus, it has built a strong brand association with its customers.
The cooperative has enabled farmers to be entrepreneurs of their produce and earn their living. The transparency of the organization ensures that there is no exploitation. In a true sense, Amul is a movement in itself that represents the economic freedom of the farmers.
Keywords: Amul, white revolution, branding, advertising, farmers, consumers
As we might have observed, generations are now divided into various categories based on ages. In fact, according to the year in which people are born, many characteristics have started being associated with them.
Therefore, let us know the different kinds generations through this article and also the characteristics which each generation possess.
The Depression Era (1912-1921)
It is believed that the individuals born in the Depression era tend to be conservative, compulsive savers, maintain low debt. Also, they use more secure financial products like CDs versus stocks. These individuals also feel the responsibility to leave a legacy to their
children. Not only this, individuals born in this era tend to be patriotic, oriented towards work before pleasure, respect their authority, and have a sense of moral obligation.
World War II (1922-1927)
It is believed that people in this cohort shared a common goal of defeating the Axis
powers. In fact, there was an accepted sense of "deferment" among this group.
Post-War Cohort (1928-1945)
After the war ended, this generation was given significant amount of opportunities in jobs and education and even a post-war economic boom struck the United States of America. But, the growth in Cold War tensions and the potential for nuclear wars led to levels of discomfort and uncertainty throughout the generation. At the same time, members of this group
value security, comfort, and familiar known activities and environments.
Boomers I or The Baby Boomers (1946-1954)The first Boomer segment
Interestingly, this generation is bounded by Kennedy and Martin Luther King assassinations, the Civil Rights movement and the Vietnam War. At the same time, Boomers I were either a part of the war or protested against the War. Also, it is believed that Boomers I had good economic opportunities and were largely optimistic about the potential of the United States of America and their own lives.
Boomers II or Generation Jones (1955-1965)
This generation faced a lot of economic struggles, including the oil embargo of 1979 which reinforced a sense of "I'm out for me" and narcissism. Also, the focus on self-help and skepticism over media and institutions is one of the representative of attitudes of this cohort. In fact, the youngest members of the
Boomer II generation did not have the benefits of the Boomer I class as many of the best jobs, opportunities, housing etc. were taken by the larger and earlier group. Therefore, both Gen X and Boomer II suffered the long shadow cast by
Generation X (1967-1976)
Sometimes this generation is referred to as the "lost" generation, and this was the first generation of "latchkey" kids, who were exposed to lots of daycare and divorce. Also, this generation is known with the lowest voting participation rate of any generation. Not only this, but Generation X is often characterized by high levels of skepticism, i.e. "what's in it for me" attitude. Individuals from this generation are arguably the best-educated generation with 29% obtaining a bachelor's degree or higher (6% higher than the previous cohort). And, with that education and growing maturity, they are starting to form families with a higher level of caution.
Generation Y, Echo Boomers or Millenniums (1977-1994)
The people from this generation are known as incredibly sophisticated, technology-wise, immune to most traditional marketing and sales pitches. Also, Generation Y members are much more racially and ethnically diverse, and they are much more segmented as an audience aided by the rapid expansion in Cable TV channels, satellite radio, the Internet, e-zines, etc. It is also noted that individuals from this generation are less brand loyal.
Generation Z (1995-2012)
Though, as of now, we don't know much about Generation Z, but we know a lot about the environment they are growing up in. Therefore, this highly diverse environment will make the grade schools of the next generation the most diverse ever. Higher levels of technology will make a significant impact on academics. Not only this, individuals from Generation Z will grow up with a highly sophisticated media and computer environment, and will be more Internet savvy.
Keywords: Generation, People, World, Statistics, Psychology, Society.
Prostitution in India is considered to be one of the oldest professions. It has been generally defined as promiscuous intercourse paid in either money or kind. The history of prostitution isn't new nor unique to India. It has been practised in almost all countries and every type of society since the establishment of the organization. Prostitution and the accompanying evil like human trafficking for prostitution are incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human and endanger the welfare of the individuals, the family and the community.
The roots of human trafficking are deeply embedded in an age-old traditional prostitution system prevalent in several parts of the country, like the devadasi and the tawaifs. A Prostitute aka Tawaif is a woman who has turned to sell her own body as aware of others' pleasure for her daily sustenance whereas prostitution is the practice of sexual service in return for money.
According to Indian history, the earlier versions of prostitutes were known as "Devadasi" and were unlike anything we know of today, Devadasis used to dedicate their whole life to the devotion of Lord Krishna. It was believed that Devadasis consider the Gods as their husbands and therefore cannot marry any mortal men. They were later being called "Nagarvadhu's" meaning the "Brides of the town" and were often called upon by the royals and the rich to dance and sing. Singing and dancing was the turf and art form for these Nagarvadhus. To name a few, Amrapali-the state courtesan and a Buddhist disciple came to be known as "Vaishali ki Nagarvadhu".
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The historians have deciphered from historical texts and evidence that the Devadasi or Nagarvadhu's were treated with respect and honour by everyone and the Royal families. No man including the Kings and Mughals even dared to touch them. In fact, during the Mughal era, the prostitutes were treated akin to entrepreneurs and they enjoyed royal patronage. They came to be known as tawaifs. They excelled in and contributed to music, dance (mujra), theatre, and the Urdu literary tradition. They were considered authoritative and masters of etiquette. They had considerable influence in state affairs, religious and political developments for over centuries.
This was until the Britishers came to India, and Devadasi's presented their art form in front of them. Attracted to them the Britishers began the tradition of one nightstand. The British started calling these dancers for sexual pleasures and this paved the way for Prostitution in the country. Under British rule, Devadasis moved from dancing and singing to prostitution which led to the decline of temple dances.
During the late 16th and 17th centuries, when certain parts of India were colonized by the Portuguese; they captured and brought Japanese women to India as sex slaves. The military laid the foundation for brothels in the country which are now known as red-light areas for its troops across many parts of India. Women and girls from rural areas were employed by these brothels and were paid by the military directly. Trying to fulfill the sexual needs of their military the British Raj enacted the Cantonment Act of 1864 to regulate prostitution in colonial India as a matter of accepting a necessary evil.
A lane in Kamathipura, a red light district in Mumbai. Wikimedia Commons
Prostitution has seen a severe decline as a profession and their social status. By the end of the nineteenth century, the concept of biological race emerged which regarded inbreeding to conserve racial purity as superior. The British regime heavily focused on decreasing interracial breeding of the whites with other racial groups including Indians, to preserve their racial purity. Due to such structural changes in society, sex work came to be viewed as oppressive and exploitative for females.
Estimates are that child prostitution is a multi-million dollar industry in India. More than half a billion children are in Brothels and they are either sold by their parents who are struck with or victims of abuse. Close to 7000 girls are brought from Nepal to India as human trafficking. These children are then exported to the Middle Eastern countries as sex slaves. According to the Human Rights Watch Report, there are over 20 million prostitutes in India out of which 35% are below the age of 18 years.
According to Indian law, prostitution itself is not illegal but activities such as running a brothel, soliciting or luring a person into prostitution, traffic of children and women for prostitution are punishable under the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA). However, the lives of prostitutes today are saddening and it is in the hands of society to evolve which could be catalyzed by Governmental Institutions. The male prostitution industry is still unrecognized by law and it calls for due attention.
Keywords: Prostitute, sex worker, tawaif, devadasi, human trafficking, laws