Monday February 19, 2018

The history and development of Indian Handicrafts

Handicraft production was the second biggest source of employment in the pre-British India

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History of Indian handicrafts
History and development of Indian handicrafts. Pixabay
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  • Handicrafts are the products which are mostly made by hand.
  • The history of Indian handicrafts can be divided into three eras: Pre British, British era, and Post Independence.
  • Clay craft is the earliest form of crafts to have existed in India.

New Delhi, September 28, 2017: Handicrafts in India have a long history. From ancient to the contemporary times, handcrafters have preserved this art. This art has been passed on from one generation to the next. Pottery making, in fact, is one of its forms, whose existence can be traced back to the Harappan Civilization.

What are handicrafts?

Handicrafts are products that are produced either completely by hands or involve tools. Mechanical tools could also be used as long as the manual contribution of the artisan remains the central component of the produced object. The production of these crafts require great skill and represents a particular expression, culture or tradition. Handicrafts could hold a number of values, some of them being aesthetic, cultural, decorative, utilitarian, religious, functional etc.

Historical Perspective of Indian Handicrafts:

To understand the historical perspective of Indian handicrafts, we need to go back in time. Let’s take a look at the development and decline of the artisanal production under three different time periods: before the arrival of British in India, Under colonial rule, and after India got independence.

History of Indian Handicrafts Before the arrival of British:

Art and crafts, as we have already mentioned, has been a tradition in India since long. Textiles, the most important of the Indian handicrafts, reached the zenith of perfection during the Mughal period. While under Mughals, it was the art of weaving and silk spinning that scored refinement; it was metal works, ivory works and jewelry that reached great potential during the Gupta period. The handicrafts production during that time can be divided in four broad categories. The first category dealt with the village economy under the jajmani system, in which the products were articles of daily use. The second category was integrated with the urban areas, where artisans produced crafts mainly for the purpose of sale. The third category concerns the dadni system, in which the merchants advanced cash to the artisans for production. The final category includes the Karkhanas, where skilled artisans produced luxury crafts under the command of kings or high nobles. Handicraft production was the second biggest source of employment in the pre-British India.

History of Indian Handicrafts Under Colonial Rule:

Under the British rule, production of Indian Handicrafts faced a rather sharp decline. When the East India Company was in power, it forced monopoly over the production of artisans from Bengal, and the price of these products were fixed 15-40% lower than their actual market price. What came as the biggest blow to the Indian artisans, however, was the removal of most of the Indian princes and nobles, which as an effect, led to the destruction of the artisan’s major market.

History of Indian Handicrafts Post-Independence:

The plight of the artisans and the cultural importance of artisanal production was taken into accord after India got independent. The establishment of All India Handicrafts Board in November 1952, to look at the problems and find solutions concerning Indian Handicrafts; the Handicrafts and Handloom Export Corporation of India Ltd in 1958, to promote handicrafts exports; Opening of Crafts Mueseum in 1953 in Delhi, to develop people’s interest in handmade Indian goods, all alluded to the idea that India had finally realized the importance of its art and crafts, and did not want to leave any stone unturned for its development.

A brief history and development of different form of handicrafts in India:

  • Clay craft and pottery: Clay craft is the earliest form of crafts to have existed, in India or in the world. A simple earthenware made of clay or ceramic has been created and used by the rural population for centuries. Potters have had an integral traditional link with the villages. The earthen pottery has only been developing, with the addition of new colors, figures of gods and goddesses, and decorative elements like flowers.

Main centers: Uttar Pradesh (Nizamabad and Chinhat), where the pottery is dark black; Bengal which produces large figures of gods, especially on the occasion of Durga Puja; In Kashmir, Srinagar is the place where special glazed pottery is made; Terra-cotta roof tiles are a tradition in Orissa and Martha Pradesh; both Rajasthan and Karnataka are popular for their black pottery; Manipur in the northeast is also famous for its pottery.

History of Indian handicrafts
Clay craft or pottery. Pixabay
  • Wood craft: Wood craft is widely produced and used throughout the country, with the most important products being household furnitures, carts and decorative objects. Baskets for storage and Toys, both for play and decoration are also made on a large scale.

Main centers: The elegant use of wood by skilled craftsmen can be seen in the houses at Gujrat and Kerala. Kashmir acquires a special position in this category of craft, with the walnut and deodar being the most favorite woods there. Saharanpur in U.P is also quite famous for its wooden furniture and objects of decoration.

History of Indian handicrafts
Wood craft. Pixabay
  • Metal craft: Copper was the most widely used metal in India before Iron joined in. Utensils, jewelry, dagger, axe heads etc in the harappan finds suggest that casting of copper objects made use of moulds. Bronze was also an important metal for the artisan production. The skills of craftsmen on metals are of various types, such as embossing, engraving, moulding etc.

Main centers: Kashmir (Srinagar) and Ladakh (Zanskar) are the two main centres. In Uttar Pradesh, Moradabad, Aligarh, Varanasi are the main centres of metal craft. Kerala specializes in the bell metal, whereas Bidar in Karnataka is noted for its Bidri work. Tribal groups in India also appear to hold their specific metal craft traditions.

History of Indian handicrafts
Metal craft. Pixabay

Also readMedha Tribe which masters in Weaving unique Bamboo Handicrafts are facing threat of extinction in Mysuru Region

  • Stone craft: Stones, without a shadow of doubt, have been there with humans since the earliest. They have been crafted into various products such as tools, decorative objects, sculptures and even jewelry. Statue of Yakshi of Didarganj is one fine piece of stone sculpture and dates back to the Maurya period. Majestic Qutub Minar in Delhi, and forts at Agra, Delhi, Jaipur are all works of stone craft.

Main centers: Rajasthan due to a large availability of stones tops the list of most prominent places for stone works. Salem district in Tamil Nadu also makes it to the list along with Gaya in Bihar. The stone cutters of Orissa also share a long history with the craft.

Main centers of Indian handicrafts
Stone craft. Pixabay
  • Ornaments and jewelry: From grass jewelry to that of gold and diamonds, one can witness great diversity when it comes to ornaments and jewelry in India. Gold, gems, silver, diamonds, other metals and precious stones are some materials used for making ornaments. Bones, horns, sea shells, lac, glass etc are also used in many  parts of the country to create ornaments. The Harappan finds revealed a number of ornaments, indicating their existence since long. There are many references in Ramayana and Mahabharata of gold being precious objects.

Main centers: Western ghats and Matheran in Maharashtra are noted for grass ornaments. Gujarat and Rajasthan share a rich and long tradition of jewelry. Kashmir is one of the most prominent places, again, with its exquisite jewelry, Varanasi and Awadh of U.P. are famous for gold studded jewelry.

History of Indian handicrafts
Ornaments and Jewelry. Pixabay
  • Textiles: India had had one of the richest traditions of textiles made from different raw materials. It won’t be wrong to say that Indian textiles tend to reflect Indian culture and religious beliefs. Bengal was the chief center of cotton production and Carpet weaving reached its zenith at the time of Mughals. The most commonly knows fabrics are cotton, wool and silk. The three main techniques used for patterning are weaving, embroidery and dyes.

Main centers: Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are famous for ikat fabric, Gujarat and Rajasthan for bandhani, U.P. and Bengal for jamdani fabrics. Rajasthan is also noted for Masoria fabric.

Indian handicrafts
Indian textiles. Pixabay

-prepared by Samiksha Goel of NewsGram. Twitter @goel_samiksha

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Little Known Facts About U.P. Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath

Yogi Adityanath is the founder of the Hindu Yuva Vahini, which is a nationalist group of young people

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Adityanath Yogi is known for his aggression and excellent oratory skills.
Adityanath Yogi is known for his aggression and excellent oratory skills.

By Ruchika Verma

  • Yogi Adityanath is an Indian monk turned politician
  • He is currently the Chief Minister of the state of Uttar Pradesh
  • Adityanath Yogi is one of the most orthodox politicians in India

When Yogi Adityanath became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, he sent the whole country into a brawl. Adityanath Yogi, as many know him as, is the founder of the youth group, Hindu Yuva Vahini.

Yogi Adityanath is not only a renowned Indian monk but also Hindu nationalist politician who with his association with Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. He is known as the face of BJP in U.P.

Adityanath Yogi is the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. (IANS)
Adityanath Yogi is the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. (IANS)

Here are few little-known facts about Yogi Adityanath you may not have known before:

  • Yogi Adityanath was born on 5th June 1972. His real name is Ajay Singh which he changed after he became a monk.
  • Adiyanath Yogi is a very intelligent man. He has a Bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand.

Also Read: Yogi Adityanath: ‘Taj Mahal is Part of Indian Heritage’

  • Yogi Adityanath was the youngest legislator of Lok Sabha. He became a member of Lok Sabha in 1998 from Gorakhpur constituency. He was the MP from the same constituency for five times in a row.

    Yogi Adityanath is known for his orthodox Hindu ways. Wikimedia Commons
    Yogi Adityanath is known for his orthodox Hindu ways. Wikimedia Commons
  • Mahant Avaidyanath who was Adityanath’s predecessor was the president of Hindu Maha Sabha. They both have kept Hindutva as a forefront agenda during their election campaigns.
  • Adityanath Yogi is believed to be the leader of the ‘purification’ movement in 2005, during which Christians were converted to Hinduism. This step stunned the whole country.
  • Yogi Adityanath is a strong supporter of the “anti-Romeo squad.” These groups strike the couples in public, especially the unmarried ones. He says that these groups work towards restoring the pride of women.

    Adityanath Yogi is the face of BJP, UP. Twitter
    Adityanath Yogi is the face of BJP, UP. Twitter
  • Yogi Adityanath is the founder of the Hindu Yuva Vahini, which is a nationalist group of young Hindu individuals. Many of its group members are Dalit Hindu who are very touchy about Hindu culture and traditions.
  •  Adityanath Yogi was not always on good terms with BJP. In 2010, he was one of the several BJP members who opposed the Women’s Reservation Bill.

Also Read: Adityanath Yogi Keeps the Promises of BJP’s Election Manifesto

  • Yogi Adityanath’s criminal record is hardly a clean slate. He has several criminal cases against him, which include: charges related to rioting, attempt to murder, illegal possession of weapons, and charges against threatening and endangering other people’s  life.

    Adityanath Yogi is a monk turned politician. Twitter
    Adityanath Yogi is a monk turned politician. Twitter
  • Adityanath Yogi is known for his aggression and has been named as one of the main culprits of the Gorakhpur riots.