Kolkata: Netaji Files revealed this Friday, turns a new page in the curious case of Bose. According to several intelligence agency inputs, the Files hint at Netaji’s apparent refuge in China in 1949. Several questions are exploring the possibilities of Netaji’s participation in the Chinese Liberation Movement against Kuomintang forces.
After Subhas’s brother Sarat’s return from Europe, intelligence agencies followed his development when he held meetings with Forward Bloc and Socialist Republican Party leaders. During one of these meetings with key party functionaries like Leela Roy, Satya Bakshi and the likes, Sarat announced the information that he had attained in Europe regarding Subhas Chandra Bose’s participation in the Chinese Liberation Movement. He believed Netaji was alive and continued to be in China.
During a time when Sarat Bose was trying to bring Leftist parties together, including Forward Bloc and Socialist Republican Party, in search for a common formula to work unitedly against the Congress, a note dated January 26, 1949, an intelligence agency quoted Sarat Bose affirming Subhas Chandra Bose’s contribution in the Communist Party’s victory in China.
The intelligence agency inputs further attest that Sarat Bose was also trying to unite those who believed in Netaji’s ideologies.
Researchers have developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based system that automatically learns to evade censorship in India, China and Kazakhstan.
The tool, called Geneva (short for Genetic Evasion), found dozens of ways to circumvent censorship by exploiting gaps in censors’ logic and finding bugs that the researchers said would have been virtually impossible for humans to find manually.
The researchers are scheduled to introduce Geneva during a peer-reviewed talk at the Association for Computing Machinery’s 26th Conference on Computer and Communications Security in London on Thursday.
“With Geneva, we are, for the first time, at a major advantage in the censorship arms race,” said Dave Levin, an assistant professor of computer science at the University of Maryland in the US and senior author of the paper.
“Geneva represents the first step toward a whole new arms race in which artificial intelligence systems of censors and evaders compete with one another. Ultimately, winning this race means bringing free speech and open communication to millions of users around the world who currently don’t have them,” Levin said.\
To demonstrate that Geneva worked in the real world against undiscovered censorship strategies, the team ran Geneva on a computer in China with an unmodified Google Chrome browser installed.
By deploying strategies identified by Geneva, the user was able to browse free of keyword censorship.
The researchers also successfully evaded censorship in India, which blocks forbidden URLs, and Kazakhstan, which was eavesdropping on certain social media sites at the time, said a statement from the University of Maryland.
All information on the Internet is broken into data packets by the sender’s computer and reassembled by the receiving computer.
One prevalent form of Internet censorship works by monitoring the data packets sent during an Internet search.
The censor blocks requests that either contain flagged keywords (such as “Tiananmen Square” in China) or prohibited domain names (such as “Wikipedia” in many countries).
When Geneva is running on a computer that is sending out web requests through a censor, it modifies how data is broken up and sent, so that the censor does not recognise forbidden content or is unable to censor the connection.
Known as a genetic algorithm, Geneva is a biologically inspired type of AI that Levin and his team developed to work in the background as a user browses the web from a standard Internet browser.
Like biological systems, Geneva forms sets of instructions from genetic building blocks. But rather than using DNA as building blocks, Geneva uses small pieces of code.
Individually, the bits of code do very little, but when composed into instructions, they can perform sophisticated evasion strategies for breaking up, arranging or sending data packets.
The tool evolves its genetic code through successive attempts (or generations). With each generation, Geneva keeps the instructions that work best at evading censorship and kicks out the rest.