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Worlds Day for Water: 5 water conservation ways that are ideal for Indian conditions

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By Ishan Kukreti

This day, 22 years ago, UN decided to recognize 22nd March as the ‘World Day for Water.’   On this day, all the UN members implemented water conservation as recommended by the UN.

According to UNWater, 783 million people do not have access to clean water. World water demand will rise up by 70% till 2050, while many places will see declining water availability. Water is a limited resource and has to be conserved for humanity to survive.

To celebrate the day, here is a list of innovative water conservative techniques which one, irrespective of their geography or profession, can make use of to save some nectar for life.

Rooftop rain water harvesting

It is the most conventional and widely used rainwater harvesting techniques. Rooftop rain harvesting is the easiest way to collect rain water for household purpose.

Building a catchment area is required to take the rainwater down into the underground tank through several filters. The harvested water can also be used to replenish ground level water.

Suitable for – Anyone who owns a house with a roof.

Cost – Rs. 10,000 – Rs. 30,000

Cycle run water pumps

In 1980 Nasiruddin Gayen, a small farmer from West Bengal conceptualized this unique invention. Instead of mechanical motors a cycle pump is used. The process not only reduces the cost of fuel but makes the person pump the amount that is required.

Paddling the cycle creates an up and down movement in the pump and this can release 100 liters of water per minutes

Suitable for – Small scale farmers, can also be used in urban settings

Cost – Less than Rs. 7000

Rainwater syringe

This method can be used to harvest rainwater in the coastal areas to dilute groundwater salinity where there is a problem of saline ground water.

Rainwater is collected from the roofs and is stored in a pressure tank. With the help of PVC pipes, the water is then transferred below the sea level of 16-24 ft. The water gets stored in the vertical groundwater column and can be used later with the help of a pump or motor.

Suitable for – Coastal areas

Cost – N.A

Joy Pumps

This is an absolutely fun filled way of conserving water. In this technique, under a merry-go-round or a see-saw, a conventional hand pump apparatus is fixed.

A tank (8-10 feet above ground level) is filled with ground water as the kids play on these rides.

This technique has been designed to cope with water scarcity problems in villages with no clear surface water source, electricity issues and high poverty.

Suitable for – Schools, parks, villages and relief camps.

Cost – N.A

Ferro-Cement Tanks

This is a cheap and durable method of rain water harvesting. All it requires to make a Ferro-cement tank is sand, cement, mild steel bar and galvanized iron wire mesh and semi-skilled laborers.

These tanks are light in weight and can last up to 25 years. The tanks can store up to 1000-2000 liters of water.

Suitable for – High rainfall regions

Cost- N.A

Next Story

World Population Expected to Reach 9.7 Billion in 2050, United Nations Reports

The new population projections indicate that nine countries will be responsible for more than half the projected population growth

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FILE - Faces in the crowd at the peace assembly in Kathmandu, May 7, 2010. VOA

The world’s population is getting older and growing at a slower pace but is still expected to increase from 7.7 billion currently to 9.7 billion in 2050, the United Nations said Monday.

The U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs’ Population Division said in a new report that world population could reach its peak of nearly 11 billion around the end of the century.

But Population Division Director John Wilmoth cautioned that because 2100 is many decades away this outcome “is not certain, and in the end the peak could come earlier or later, at a lower or higher level of total population.”

The new projections indicate that nine countries will be responsible for more than half the projected growth between now and 2050. In descending order of the expected increase, they are: India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Egypt and the United States.

UN, World, Population
The world’s population is getting older and growing at a slower pace but is still expected to increase from 7.7 billion currently to 9.7 billion in 2050. VOA

In sub-Saharan Africa, it is projected to nearly double by 2050, the report said.

Undersecretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs Lu Zhenmin said in a statement: “Many of the fastest growing populations are in the poorest countries, where population growth brings additional challenges in the effort to eradicate poverty,” promote gender equality and improve health care and education.

The report confirmed that the world’s population is growing older due to increasing life expectancy and falling fertility levels.

The global fertility rate fell from 3.2 births per woman in 1990 to 2.5 births in 2019 and is projected to decline further to 2.2 births by 2050.

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A fertility rate of 2.1 births per woman is need to ensure population replacement and avoid declines, according to the report.

In 2019, the fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa was the highest at 4.6 births per woman, with Pacific islands, northern Africa, and western, central and southern Asia above the replacement level, the report said.

But since 2010, it said 27 countries or areas have lost one percent or more of their population.

“Between 2019 and 2050 populations are projected to decrease by one percent or more in 55 countries or areas, of which 26 may see a reduction of at least 10 percent,” the U.N. said. “In China, for example, the population is projected to decrease by 31.4 million, or around 2.2 percent, between 2019 and 2050.”

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World population could reach its peak of nearly 11 billion around the end of the century. Pixabay

Wilmoth, the head of the Population Division, told a news conference launching the report that the population growth rate is slowing down as the fertility level gradually decreases. That decrease usually follows a reduction in the mortality level that initially instigated growth, he said.

Wilmoth stressed that multiple factors lead to lower fertility including increasing education and employment, especially for women, and more jobs in urban than rural areas, which motivate people away from costly large families to  smaller families.

But to achieve this, he said, people also need access to modern methods of contraception.

According to the “World Population Prospects 2019: Highlights” report, migration is also a major component of population growth or loss in some countries.

Also Read- Here’s How You Can go Environment-friendly During Menstruation

Between 2010 and 2020, it said 14 countries or areas will see a net inflow of more than one million migrants while 10 countries will experience a similar loss.

For example, some of the largest outflows of people — including from Bangladesh, Mepal and the Philippines — are driven by the demand for migrant workers, the report said. But some migrants are driven from their home countries by violence, insecurity and conflict, including from Myanmar, Syria and Venezuela.

The U.N. said countries experiencing a net inflow of migrants over the decade include Belarus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine. (VOA)