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Year review of Sikkim: India’s First fully Organic State in 2016 and Cleanest State in the country

Sikkim is also the cleanest state of India

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Crows Lake in North Sikkim. Wikimedia

December 31, 2016: Sikkim became India’s first fully organic state in 2016. Apart from this, Sikkim is also the cleanest state of the India. The Kanchenjunga National Park of Sikkim was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list. Also, the state was conferred overall best in education.

Around 75,000 hectares of land was converted to certified organic land according to the guidelines laid down in National Program for organic production. The idea was proposed in 2003. It took nearly 13 years to implement organic farming.

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According to PTI, the government under Pawan Chamling amended the gambling and casino rules of the state. From July, all locals were banned from entering the casinos. In June, Chamling submitted four memorandums to Prime Minister Narendra Modi that included a demand of Rs. 43,589 crore for development. Also, Bermiok-Total Senior Secondary School, situated in south Sikkim became the first school in Northeast to have smart classes.

On June 7, the lifeline of Sikkim, Sevoke Gangtok highway, was handed over by BRO to the PWD, West Bengal. BRO had been the in-charge of maintenance since the 1968 landslides. The highway has been rechristened NH-10. It leads up to Nathula along Indo-China border.

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On 17th July, Kanchenjunga National Park, situated in West Sikkim, was declared by the world heritage site committee as the UNESCO World Heritage site at its 40th session held at Istanbul.

Meria Subba won the Mega Miss North East title in June. In September, kickboxer Sushmita Rai made the country proud by winning a bronze at the World Martial Arts Masters Championship held in South Korea. She, along with kickboxer Sushmita Rai,

In September, the National Sample Survey Office, India named Sikkim the cleanest state of India. The award was given by Narendra Singh Tomar, Union Rural Development Minister, based on the results of a survey conducted in 2015.

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According to PTI, all the four districts of the state were included in the top 10 districts of the country’s hill states. Also, Ministry of Tourism named Sikkim the cleanest tourist destination in India in October. The award was given by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

But Sikkim had some lows in 2016. In August, a landslide blocked a portion of Kanka River. This created an artificial lake and submerged five houses. Hundreds of families were affected by this landslide. The continuous threat of a flash flood from the river caused panic among the people. In May, a student from Kolkata, who was on a vacation, was raped.

Prepared by Diksha Arya of NewsGram. Twitter: @diksha_arya53

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Sikkim Holds Exceptionally Steady And Silent Progress In Improving The Lives Of Ordinary People

Given the track record, it may be safe to predict that Sikkim might be the first Indian state to offer solutions to the rest of India - and the world.

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Sikkim, along with Meghalaya, occupies the top two positions in the best performing region of Northeast on women's empowerment index comprising of participation of women in household decisions, ownership of land, cell phones and bank account, and instances of spousal violence. Pixabay

Everyone knows that Sikkim is a small extraordinarily picturesque mountainous state tucked away in the Himalayas in the northeast of India. That indeed it is. Even today, there are only around 650,000 people living in the state. However, much less known about Sikkim to the rest of India – and also the world – is the exceptionally steady and silent progress in improving the lives of ordinary people that the state has recorded over the past two decades.

How did Sikkim achieve this? The obvious answer is that Sikkim, like many countries in the world, has ensured that policies that promote economic opportunities go hand-in-hand with policies that ensure an equitable expansion of health, education, nutrition and essential basic social services.

Less obvious is the critical role of political leadership in ensuring improvements in the lives of people. Ensuring that the additional tax revenues from economic growth are invested in expanding human capabilities does not happen automatically. Chief Minister Pawan Chamling – the longest serving Chief Minister of any Indian state – has prioritized investments in health, education and infrastructure like no other political leader has. After all, ensuring adequate funds for the social sectors is as much a function of the funds available as it is of making it a political priority. Very few political leaders in India and elsewhere recognize the importance of investing in people as Chamling does.

What goes even more unnoticed is the role that women have played in Sikkim’s development success. Traditionally women have enjoyed greater freedom in Sikkim than in many other parts of the country. The Sikkim Human Development Report revealed that the state had the best gender parity performance among the northeastern states, with female labour force participation at 40 per cent, much higher than the national average of around 26 per cent. In recent times, with the support of the state, they have played an active role in various spheres of life.

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Traditionally women have enjoyed greater freedom in Sikkim than in many other parts of the country.Pixabay

Sikkim’s women have exercised leadership by taking advantage of the available educational and development opportunities. This is revealed by the progress on multiple indicators from NFHS 3 to NFHS 4 recorded by Sikkim. According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS 4), 41 per cent women in the state have 10 or more years of schooling – much better than the country’s average of 36 per cent. Only 15 per cent women, age 20-24 years, were married before age of 18 years as against the national average of 27 per cent. There are only 3 per cent teenage pregnancies in the state placing Sikkim as the best among the northeastern states. The infant mortality rate in the state is 30 against national average of 34. Sikkim has improved its performance with regard to safe delivery remarkably by 43 per cent points from NFHS 3 to 97 per cent in NFHS 4, the best in northeastern states.

Sikkim, along with Meghalaya, occupies the top two positions in the best performing region of Northeast on women’s empowerment index comprising of participation of women in household decisions, ownership of land, cell phones and bank account, and instances of spousal violence.

Women in Sikkim are more empowered to take decisions than women in other parts of the country. According to NFHS-4, in 2015-16, 85 per cent women have the freedom of movement, including to market, health facility and places outside the village or community compared to national average. Almost all (95 per cent) of currently married women in Sikkim participate in household decisions as against national average of 84 per cent. Nearly 80 per cent women in the state have mobile phones for personal use against 46 per cent at the national level. Close to two-thirds (64 per cent) of women in Sikkim – as against just over half 953 per cent) of women across India – have a bank or savings account that they themselves operate. Only 3 per cent ever married women have ever experience spousal violence as against 29 percent nationally – the lowest across Indian states.

Sikkim has, however, many things to worry about. This includes creating jobs for its young people within the state, improving the quality of education, protecting residents from natural disasters, expanding infrastructure and so on. Equally worrisome is the sharp decline in total fertility rate (TFR) – 1.2 in 2015-16 – which is well below the replacement level of 2.1. This sharp decline in TFR might have also contributed to the worsening of the female-to-male ratio at birth from 984 in 205-06 to 809 in 2015-16.

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Sikkim has, however, many things to worry about. This includes creating jobs for its young people within the state, improving the quality of education, protecting residents from natural disasters, expanding infrastructure and so on. Pixabay

The reduced TFR is not good news as it may result in an age-structural transformation wherein Sikkim, like Kerala, will have to address the challenges of an aging population. This could get manifested in the short supply of workers as well as a further decline in the sex ratio. With shrinking active labour force, Sikkim’s economy could experience loss in economic output and possibly a decline in income levels. There could also be an increase in the elderly dependency ratio and morbidity levels on account of a rise in non-communicable diseases. Sikkim will have to mobilize the resources needed to extend financial support of the elderly and make provisions to address, in particular, their health care needs. It will also have to deal with the challenge of declining fertility rates.

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These challenges may not come as a surprise to the political leadership in Sikkim. They should not given how well Chief Minister Chamling and the executive are connected the people. Given the track record, it may be safe to predict that Sikkim might be the first Indian state to offer solutions to the rest of India – and the world. (IANS)