Monday December 18, 2017

Revival of Sanskrit language: Lessons from Hebrew revival

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A young student reads Sanskrit scripts while attending class at Budhanilkantha Vedh Vidhya ashram, a school imparting vedic knowledge and attached to the Budhanilkantha temple, in Katmandu, Nepal, Monday, June 10, 2013. Budhanilkantha is believed to be an incarnation of Hindu god Vishnu and is one of the most important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. (AP Photo/Niranjan Shrestha)

By Nithin Sridhar

Sanskrit, in many a sense, can be considered as the soul of India and Indian culture. Though  it has only a few thousand native speakers today, and its usage has been limited to performing Hindu rituals and for studying Hindu scriptures, its influence has seeped into every aspect of Indian life – be it art, culture, religion, science, or ethics.

Every nation has its own story and the story of India cannot be written without a revival of Sanskrit. Even today, India is a colonized country.

Though it has become free from British rule, its worldview, thought process, and very existence is still colonized by the Western narratives and super-impositions. This was the direct result of the dismantling of Sanskrit language and its eventual fading away from the nerve centers of the society.

Thus, the only way forward to reclaim Indian identity by decolonizing the Indian mind is by reviving Sanskrit as a spoken and literary language, as well as a language of science and math. Towards this endeavor, the Jewish revival of Hebrew language can serve as a great example from which many lessons can be learned by the Indians.

Also Read: If you look carefully at English you will see Sanskrit hidden everywhere

Before its revival in the late 19th and early 20th century, Hebrew was largely considered a ‘dead’ language. It had ceased to be a spoken language after around 400 CE. Yet, the 19th century Jews who emigrated into Jerusalem and the surrounding area, which today constitutes Israel, made persistent efforts to revive Hebrew as a common spoken language. These attempts were driven by their desire to find a common link language between Jews emigrated from different countries with different mother tongues as well as their desire to define a Jewish national identity.

The present condition in India has many parallels with the Jewish condition in the 19th century. Indians today have been uprooted from their civilization and find themselves alien to their own cultural identity. The presence of a large number of regional languages has, on one hand, maintained the last link of Indians to their native culture, but on the other hand they have paved way for conflicts and fissures between various regions. Though the adoption of English as a link language by the modern India has been an effective move, it has further alienated the English educated people from their own culture and values.

In other words, English has acted as a predatory language that has already become successful in colonizing Indian minds. Thus, India today is in need of a link language that reinforces Indian national and cultural identity. And Sanskrit alone has all the requirements to serve as that national language.

Also Read: Sanskrit as a link language for imparting scientific knowledge

Eliezer Ben-Yehuda is often regarded as the ‘reviver of the Hebrew language.’ His life mission was to revive Hebrew has a spoken language, and he took several initiatives towards the same. Though his actions in themselves cannot be considered as being instrumental in the ultimate revival, he and his initiatives served as a role model for others to replicate and expand.

Ben Yehuda identified three major components crucial for Hebrew revival: use of Hebrew at home; use of Hebrew socially among both adults and children; and oversight by the language committee.

Ben Yehuda started his experiments of reviving Hebrew at his own home and his newly born child was exposed to only Hebrew for the first seven years of its life. Though Ben’s experiments were looked up with curiosity by many families, there was no immediate impact on them. But later, during the first and second Aliyah (emigrations of Jews into the Middle East), farming communities started communicating among themselves in Hebrew.

In the social domain, Ben taught at a school for a brief period using Hebrew alone. He successfully utilized the Berlitz method for teaching in Hebrew wherein the students were made to pick up the language by immersion without any component of grammar or memorization. Ben thus demonstrated the desirability and practicability of teaching in Hebrew. This was later replicated by other schools and slowly it spread throughout Palestine. Ben also started a Hebrew newspaper that played an important role in the revival of Hebrew.

Ben started a language committee in 1890. This again became defunct very soon. But, in 1903, it was again restarted by others under the name ‘Language Council,’ and the council worked relentlessly to prepare Hebrew dictionaries, coin new words to cater to modern needs, and standardize pronunciation.

All these initiatives by Ben later led to major revival initiatives by many others. Slowly Hebrew began to be used in all public assemblages and conferences during the second Aliyah and finally in 1909, Tel Aviv, the first Hebrew city, was established. The setting up of an engineering institute in 1913 marked a turning point in Hebrew history. The institute, which was originally proposed to have German language as a medium of instruction for teaching engineering concepts, was later changed to Hebrew under public pressure. This transformed Hebrew from being a spoken and religious language to a language for imparting higher sciences. The cumulative effect of all these efforts ultimately led to the adoption of Hebrew as the official language of the state of Israel when it was formed in 1948.

Also Read: Only through Sanskrit, can India make a credible narrative about its Sanskriti

India can learn many lessons from this Hebrew experiment and replicate many of those initiatives. Organizations like Samskrita Bharati are already working towards spreading spoken Sanskrit. But, India being a very large country with a huge population, the fruits of the efforts of such organizations have been very minimal.

The driving force behind the Hebrew revival was not just Ben Yehuda, but common people who took initiatives. Indians should also be sensitized towards the advantages of speaking Sanskrit and should be inspired to come forward to take the initiative.

Another important lesson that India can learn is the role of schools in reviving a language. Just as schools were turned into a nerve centers that brought about the revival of Hebrew, schools and the education system should be used for the revival of Sanskrit language. State and central governments must be convinced to make Sanskrit and the regional languages as first and second languages with English being treated as a third language. Subjects from Indian knowledge systems, be it Nyaya (logic), Vaisheshika (physics), Vedanta, Vastu, etc., which are imparted using Sanskrit must be introduced into the conventional curriculum as optional subjects. Slowly, a transition from English to Sanskrit could be made in the teaching of science and math subjects as well.

A practical option would be to give students a choice between Sanskrit and English as a medium of instruction in science and math subjects in schools and the same at graduation levels. Further, various research departments, institutes, and other employment opportunities must also be created simultaneously for those who graduate from Sanskrit medium. This will ensure a slow transition from the English-only academic scenario to a English-Sanskrit academic scenario, which may eventually turn into a Sanskrit-alone scenario as well.

India already has a Rashtriya Samskrita Sansthan, but its reach and impact is very minimal. Sanskrit centers and councils must be established at city and state levels with adequate funding for the promotion of Sanskrit.

These centers may further act as facilitators for the formation of language groups, study groups, and various other activities that would promote the revival of the Sanskrit language.

If both the people and the governments sincerely take up these initiatives and implement them on the ground, then the transition of the Sanskrit language from being ‘dead’ to being a ‘flourishing’ language will be a reality within a few decades, maybe by the end of this century. Otherwise, future generations of Indians will further become alienated from their own culture and traditions and will end up being devoid of India’s rich national history, heritage, and identity. (image: epochinspired.com)

  • Varadraj Bapat

    very nice !

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Hindi-Hebrew great combo for global start-up ecosystem, says Israeli Ambassador Daniel Carmon

Silicon Valley is considered the global capital for start-ups, and Hindi and Hebrew are heard more than English

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Israel Ambassador to India, Daniel Carmon ( in the centre). Image source: takshashila.org.in

Gurgaon, Aug 13: Guess what are the most spoken languages in Silicon Valley? It is not English but Hindi and Hebrew. Therefore, any India-Israel collaboration can create a vibrant ecosystem that will help start-ups to mushroom and thrive the world over, Israel’s Ambassador to India Daniel Carmon said.

“Start-ups constitute one of the pillars in further strengthening India-Israel relations,” Carmon told IANS, while announcing the Indian winners who will participate at this year’s Start Tel Aviv- a global event that brings to one platform entrepreneurs from across the world.

Benjamin Netanyahu. Image source: Wikimedia Commons
Benjamin Netanyahu. Image source: Wikimedia Commons

Quoting Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, the ambassador said that in the Silicon Valley, considered the global capital for start-ups, Hindi and Hebrew are heard more than English.

On the USA’s East Coast, Indians and Israelis already dominate the diamond business.

“If the people from India and Israel dominate the start-up space in Silicon Valley, why can’t they meet more often in New Delhi or Tel Aviv? I think start-ups provide great opportunities for people of both the countries who share common goals and aspirations,” he added.

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“Proud of their history and tradition, India and Israel are two countries with a large population of young people, eager and curious to grasp the future,” the ambassador said.

“Let’s do it together.”

Ambassador Carmon said the initiative in start-ups was just one of the pillars identified to push India-Israel relations. He identified the others as agriculture, water ecosystem, defence, homeland security, education and academia.

XLPAT Lab co-founder Komal Talwar and Advenio’s Mausumi Acharyya were picked as the winners of the “Start Tel Aviv – India Finals” competition. They will join founders from 22 other countries for an intense, five-day start-up experience in Tel Aviv from September 25 to 29 this year.

“It is for the first time that the competition is focusing on women. We want to bring the women entrepreneurs to the front of the stage to take their rightful place in the start-up world,” said Ditza Froim, Minister-Counsellor for Public Diplomacy at the Israeli Embassy.

Talwar’s XLPAT boasts of patent and technology coverage of over 120 countries which allows users thorough and exhaustive patent searches within minutes and also generate claim charts.

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Focussing in the field of computer aided diagnosis, Acharyya’s Advenio is developing a software to analyse hundreds of medical images to help doctors arrive at quick decisions about a medical problems.

Start Tel Aviv is organised to help promising early-stage start-ups to meet and establish relationships with potential customers, partners and high-profile industry leaders. (IANS)

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5 happenings of 2015 that indicate revival of Sanskrit

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Sanskrit

By Harshmeet Singh

The sacred language, the mother of all Indian languages, the most complete language, the most scientific language, and lots more. There is no dearth of phrases to define the Sanskrit language. Though no one doubted its holistic nature, the number of native speakers of the language has been on a constant decline for the past several decades.

Albeit a number of measures have been taken in the past to revive the language, most of them have failed to bring in any change. However, the year 2015 saw a number of encouraging happenings that point towards a possible revival of the holy language in the times to come. NewsGram brings forth the five stories of 2015 that indicate a better future for the language in the times to come.

  1. Sanskrit finding many takers in German Universities (April 2015)

A total of 14 German Universities offer Sanskrit courses at present. Most of them were on the verge of shutting down these courses a decade ago since they couldn’t find any takers. But a recent interest in the language has meant that these Universities are now finding it hard to fulfill the demand of Sanskrit learners.

Interestingly, it is not just the German students who are taking up these courses. These universities have inducted students from over 30 countries from across the world.

 2.  250 Sanskrit scholars from India participate in the World Sanskrit Conference in Thailand (June 2015)

External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj accompanied 250 Indian scholars to take part in the World Sanskrit Conference. Mrs. Swaraj was the guest of honor at the event and delivered a stunning speech in Sanskrit, setting the tone for the Conference.

Though this event has been a regular affair after its initial edition in 1972 in Delhi, it was the first time that India took this event seriously. India also presented a couple of plays at the opening and closing ceremonies of the event.

 3.  Weekly news programme in Sanskrit on Doordarshan (June 2015)

Starting 28th June, the day when the World Sanskrit Conference began, Doordarshan launched a half an hour weekly Sanskrit-news programme. The channel was already airing a five-minute Sanskrit-news bulletin called ‘Varta’. Accepting that 5 minutes aren’t enough, the 30 minutes program was launched.

 4.  Panel set up for the promotion of Sanskrit (Nov 2015)

In November, the HRD ministry appointed a 13-member committee to come up with ways to revive people’s interest in Sanskrit. The committee is headed by N Gopalaswami, the former chief election commissioner and the present chancellor of Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth.

The committee has been directed to suggest ways to integrate the language with other disciplines such as Mathematics, Physics and Law. It also needs to put together an action plan for the next decade to ensure the development of the language.

  1. ‘Paschim Banga Sanskrito Vidyalaya’ all set to come into being in 2016 (Dec 2015)

Kolkata’s Sanskrit college, which came into being in 1824, is one of Asia’s oldest educational institutes. In 1851, under the principalship of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, the college took a major leap when it admitted students from non-Brahmin castes as well.

The West Bengal government has now decided to revive the ‘almost irrelevant’ College and turn it into a University. A bill regarding this was recently passed in the state assembly. The University will also focus on Prakrit, Pali philosophy, linguistics, world history and ancient history.

 

 

 

Such measures have ensured that Sanskrit ends the year 2015 on a much better note than it had entered 2015. The year 2016 may very well be the year when the language takes that one giant leap that it needs to regain its lost glory.

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Let’s revive Sanskrit in correct manner

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Sanskrit

By Harshmeet Singh

“If I was asked what is the greatest treasure which India possesses and what is her greatest heritage, I would answer unhesitatingly that it is the Sanskrit language and literature and all that it contains. This is a magnificent inheritance, and so long as this endures and influences the life of our people, so long will the basic genius of India continue.”

Jawaharlal Nehru (Discovery of India)

The history remembers Thomas Babington Macaulay as the person who introduced ‘English medium education’ in India in 1835. He said that he wanted to turn the Indian high class into “a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect”. Close to a couple of centuries later, Macaulay seems to have achieved his goal. His motive behind such a move can be deciphered by one of his other statements. “It is, I believe, no exaggeration to say that all the historical information which has been collected from all the books written in the Sanskrit language is less valuable than what may be found in the most paltry abridgement used at preparatory schools in England”, he said. The same Sanskrit that he discarded has been known as the origin of a number of languages which are in use today.

That Sanskrit is dying a slow death has been a much accepted fact for long now. The stature of Sanskrit started diminishing long before our independence. Post independence, the efforts to revive Sanskrit were confined to “government feeding tubes and oxygen tanks”. Even the first 5 Sahitya Akademi Awards in the field of Sanskrit literature were actually awarded to works based on Sanskrit culture, but written in Hindu and English languages! As the mother of a number of present day Indian languages, the need for Sanskrit’s revival is recognized by all. However, making it compulsory at the school level might not be the ideal way forward. Even in its prime, Sanskrit was never used by the masses. This was essentially why Mahavir and Buddha came up with Prakrit and Pali respectively.

Forcing the masses to use Sanskrit as a tool for communication won’t bring any good. Rather, coming up with specialized Sanskrit excellence centers, offering scholarships to pursue higher education in Sanskrit and translating popular reading material into Sanskrit might just provide the much needed boost to the language. Such steps would also enhance the waning population of Sanskrit language experts in the country.

Ironically, most of the Sanskrit research and translation work today is being undertaken by foreign scholars. In January this year, Germany’s Dr. Annette Schmiedchen was conferred the Padma Shri award for his significant work in relation with his research and teaching of Sanskrit language at many German universities. He himself studied Sanskrit Epigraphy and Indology at Berlin’s Humboldt University. Thailand’s Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn is another well renowned patron of Sanskrit who has promoted the cause of Sanskrit at the world stage.

While forcing Sanskrit down the throat of the public isn’t the best way for its revival, the Government can surely encourage the students to take up the language by making it more rewarding. At least those who are willing should be provided with the resources to learn the language and spread its glory.