Tuesday June 18, 2019

Additives in E-Cigarettes Impair Lung Functioning

However, respiratory mechanics were adversely affected only in mice exposed to cigarette smoke and not to e-cigarette vapour after prolonged treatment

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E-cigarette additives impair lung function: Study.

Flavouring and additive ingredients used in e-cigarettes are more likely to increase inflammation and impair lung function, according to new research.

E-cigarettes — popular battery-powered devices that simulate the act of smoking a traditional cigarette — dispense a vapour derived from liquid chemicals in a refillable cartridge.

Researchers from the University of Athens found that short-term exposure to e-cigarettes was enough to cause lung inflammation similar or worse than that seen in traditional cigarette use.

The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, examined several groups of mice that received whole-body exposure to varying chemical combinations four times each day.

Each exposure session was separated by 30-minute smoke-free intervals.

One group was exposed to cigarette smoke, another with e-cigarette vapour containing propylene glycol and vegetable glycerol — an odourless liquid derived from plant oils, the third with e-cigarette vapour containing propylene glycol and nicotine and another group was exposed to e-cigarette vapour containing propylene glycol, nicotine and tobacco flavouring.

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In this April 11, 2018, photo, an unidentified 15-year-old high school student uses a vaping device near the school’s campus in Cambridge, Mass. Health and education officials across the country are raising alarms over wide underage use of e-cigarettes and other vaping products. The devices heat liquid into an inhalable vapor that’s sold in sugary flavors like mango and mint — and often with the addictive drug nicotine. VOA

The findings suggested an increase in markers of inflammation, mucus production and altered lung function in the propylene, propylene plus nicotine and flavouring groups after three days.

In addition, two inflammation-producing proteins became elevated only in the flavouring group, which suggested that some flavouring components on the market may not be safe for even short-term use.

The level of oxidative stress — stress at a cellular level — in the flavouring group was equal to or higher than that of the cigarette group.

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However, respiratory mechanics were adversely affected only in mice exposed to cigarette smoke and not to e-cigarette vapour after prolonged treatment.

“The observed detrimental effects in the lung upon (e-cigarette) vapour exposure in animal models highlight the need for further investigation of safety and toxicity of these rapidly expanding devices worldwide,” the researchers warned. (IANS)

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Flavoured E-Cigarettes Increase the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

"This study clearly shows that e-cigarettes are not a safe alternative to traditional cigarettes," said Joseph Wu, Professor at Stanford University

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e-cigarette
E-cigarette additives impair lung function: Study.

The flavours used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette), especially cinnamon and menthol, can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) when inhaled, says a study. The research team investigated the effect of the e-liquids on endothelial cells that line the interior of blood vessels.

The study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, found that endothelial cells exposed to the e-liquids or to blood collected from e-cigarette users shortly after vaping, exhibit significantly increased levels of molecules implicated in DNA damage and cell death.

The severity of the damage, aspects of which occur even in the absence of nicotine, varies among popular flavours, said the researchers, adding that cinnamon and menthol were found to be particularly harmful. “This study clearly shows that e-cigarettes are not a safe alternative to traditional cigarettes,” said Joseph Wu, Professor at Stanford University.

E-cigarettes, Smokers
A woman smokes an electronic cigarette in London, Aug. 19, 2015. VOA

For the study, the researchers investigated the effect of six different popular e-liquid flavours — fruit, tobacco, sweet tobacco with caramel and vanilla, sweet butterscotch, cinnamon and menthol — with varied nicotine levels on endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells.

ALSO READ: UK Study: E-Cigarettes help Smokers Quit as Much as Stop-Smoking Aids

“When we exposed the cells to six different flavours of e-liquid with varying levels of nicotine, we saw significant damage. The cells were less viable in culture, and they began to exhibit multiple symptoms of dysfunction,” Wu said.

The researchers found that while several of the liquids were moderately toxic to the endothelial cells, the cinnamon- and menthol-flavoured e-liquids significantly decreased the viability of the cells in culture even in the absence of nicotine. “It’s important for e-cigarette users to realise that these chemicals are circulating within their bodies and affecting their vascular health,” Wu said. (IANS)