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By- Monika Rao
International Mathematical Olympiads' (IMO) are conducted annually. Olympiad exams are competitive exams that are conducted by various organizations all across India plus abroad. These examinations are conducted on the basis of the school curriculum of ICSE, CBSE, and some other major state boards. These exams help the students understand where their performance stands with their peers across the country. The paper pattern for this exam is that they are all objective-type with multiple-choice questions.
Maths Olympiad focuses on concept-based learning and logical thinking. Attending these exams enhances the abilities of the students which will prove to be an important tool to face the future competition coming into their lives. These exams evaluate conceptual learning and strengthen the reasoning, analytical and problem-solving skills of a student. This in return prepares the students to stay strong with the upcoming challenges yet to come.
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Independent private organizations are present that conduct the Olympiad exams as well, for example SOF, CREST Olympiads, Unicus Olympiads, Educative Initiatives, Indian Talent Olympiad, Humming Bird Education, Eduheal Foundation, Silver Zone Foundation, and Unified Council.
This article talks about the syllabus of the IMO exam for class 10. Use IMO Class 10 2014 Question Paper to get a clear idea about the exam.
- Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning
Verbal and non-verbal reasoning is the frequently asked logical reasoning question. The verbal reasoning aims to test the candidates' aptitude and command over English grammar along with analytical thinking skills. The concepts in verbal reasoning include analogy, classification, coding-decoding, blood relation, the Venn diagram, clocks, calendar, direction and distance, input-output, puzzle, decision making, etc. Non-verbal reasoning tests for analytical thinking too and the concepts in this topic include analogy, classification, image and figure counting, series, cube and dice, and more.
- Real Numbers
Real numbers are a set of numbers that include rational numbers as well as irrational numbers whereas imaginary numbers are a set of numbers that include numbers that aren't real. For example, the root of -2 is imaginary because the number under root would be positive if it were real. In this type of question, a certain equation or expression with a bunch of variables is provided from which one is expected to arrive at the solution and choose one of the options.
A polynomial is an expression that contains over two algebraic terms. Questions of this include if 𝞪, 𝛃 are the zeros of the quadratic polynomial, then the value of some expression involving 𝞪, 𝛃 must be found out. Or the questions where there is a condition, an equation, and roots are denoted by a and b, one needs to find out the value of the unknown variable.
- Pair of linear equations in two variables
Linear equations in two variables can be described as equations that are expressed in the format of ax+by+c=0. It covers word problems where two equations are to be deciphered from the given sentences and is meant to be solved to reach the answer. Time, distance, place values, ratios, direct equations and more are some of the topics where they frame questions on.
Olympiad exams are competitive exams that are conducted by various organizations all across India plus abroad.Unsplash
- Quadratic equations
Quadratic equation is an algebraic expression which is of second degree. The general format of a quadratic equation is ax^2 + bx + c = 0. Finding discriminant from the given equation or finding roots when both are equal and there's another variable k, one must find out the solution. Another type of question asked is where they give a quadratic equation and ask you to find out the value of an expression which is written in terms of the roots.
- Arithmetic progression
Belonging to progressions (AP, GP, HP), arithmetic progression is a sequence of numbers in which the numbers differ from the preceding one by some constant quantity. In this type of equation, some information is provided about first term, last term, x term or sum, and one must find out the yth term.
- Triangles, circles, constructions, areas related to circles
These kind of problems provide a figure where some information is provided either about the angles, congruency, similarity, etc and may ask for cross product, angle of unknown intersection, etc.
- Coordinate Geometry
Coordinate geometry is the branch of geometry which is also called the cartesian geometry. Different shapes like parallelograms, squares, rectangles or even trapeziums are present which are taken in some order which can be visualized if draw on paper. The question asks one to find the missing value or ratios.
- Introduction to trigonometry, some applications of trigonometry
Trigonometry handles specific functions of angles and their applications. There's wide variety of possible problems that use a load of equations but a few tips that can help you to get better at trigonometry is to begin with the complex side of the equation. To make things easier, try to convert the other terms (tan, cosec, cot, sec) in terms of sine and cosine. Try to combine terms into simpler forms and solve it step by step. But if this procedure is going to be way too time-taking, substitute values instead for the question and answer options. The one that matches is the answer.
- Surface areas and volumes, areas related to circles
Radius, diameter and a bunch of other information is provided from which a given task/value needs to be executed and find out the result.
- Statistics and Probability
Statistics deals with analyzing numerical data in large quantities and IMO asks questions on these often. Probability on the other hand is the extent to which an event may occur, it can be described in terms of ratio or percentage of the favorable cases to the whole number of cases possible. The questions asked in statistics are mostly based on mean, median and mode. For probability, a deck of card questions (ex: one card is drawn from a well-shuffled deck of cards, What is the probability that the card drawn is king) and drawing balls/ marbles are asked often.
Solve previous year papers, the workbooks and good luck for your next IMO.
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Final preparations are in full swing at Six Senses Fort Barwara which will host the much talked about wedding of celebrity couple Vicky Kaushal and Katrina Kaif.
According to sources, the event company working for this wedding has procured crystal balls and chandeliers from abroad to give a royal look to the wedding. These will be installed in the hotel soon.
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Six Senses Hotel has also parked indicator vehicles on the road at frequent intervals for the guests to reach the hotel easily. A glass 'mandap' has been prepared and decorated in Rajwada style for the couple to take 'pheres' (rounds around the fire) as per Hindu rituals. Moreover, the glass carvings on the mandap is such that it creates an optical illusion.
This wedding ceremony will be held amidst tight security arrangements. Secret codes have been given to each of the guests, so that it is impossible to know which guest is staying in which room.
Mobile phones have been banned inside the venue. International photographers have been hired to shoot the entire wedding. The ceremonies will be held from December 7 to December 9, with bouncers and police personnel looking after the security arrangements. As many as 100 bouncers have arrived from Jaipur to look after security arrangements at the wedding.
Katrina and Vicky's wedding is to be solemnized on December 9.Unsplash
Vicky Kaushal and Katrina Kaif's outfits have been designed in Mumbai which they will wear during different wedding ceremonies.
As per information, Katrina Kaif and Vicky Kaushal are scheduled to reach Hotel Six Senses Fort Barwara located at Chauth Ka Barwara, by 9 p.m. on Monday, via car from Jaipur where both are expected to receive a grand welcome by the hotel management.
Along with Vicky and Katrina, their family members too will reach the hotel on Monday. However, some close family members and other guests will reach the venue separately. Katrina's sister Natasha and friends reached Jaipur airport on Monday afternoon from where they left for the wedding venue by car.
Katrina and Vicky's wedding is to be solemnized on December 9. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : wedding, Bollywood, Vicky Kaushal, Katrina Kaif, Rajasthan, hotel, Fort Barwara, ceremony, photographer, bouncer, outfit)
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Meta-owned WhatsApp on Monday announced an incubator programme in India that will select 10 organisations and help them build digital solutions to tackle critical health issues.
Called the WhatsApp Incubator Programme (WIP), the initiative aims to facilitate positive and measurable health outcomes at scale by leveraging the WhatsApp Business Platform.
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"During the pandemic we have seen several innovative use cases of the WhatsApp Business Platform by government organisations, civic actors, city administrations and many more NGOs, both large and small, across sectors and locations," said Abhijit Bose, Head of WhatsApp India.
The selected organisations will also be provided with technical support in order to design, prototype and pilot their health use cases.Unsplash
Also Read : The story behind Whatsapp
"We hope the WhatsApp Incubator Programme brings forth more such innovative and unique solutions that will help solve India's healthcare needs," he said in a statement.
The selected organizations will also be provided with technical support in order to design, prototype and pilot their health use cases.
The company said that participating organizations get the opportunity to be mentored by industry experts, access on-ground ecosystems, receive support with impact measurement guidance, and a chance to network with funders to scale their use cases.
The programme, for which applications are open till December 24, is being administered by Quicksand Design Studio, WhatsApp said. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : Whatsapp, incubator, organizations, digital, health, business, pandemic, innovative, technical)
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By D.C. Pathak
Advent of Biden Presidency with its resonating calls of 'America is back', 'we will repair our alliances' and 'will engage with the world once again' on one hand and the rise of President Xi Jinping with a stronger hold on China after the Plenary session of the 19th Central Committee of CPC, on the other, have got strategic analysts to examine if a new Cold War was already on the horizon.
India has to define its stand and negotiate its international policy keeping in view the nation's best interests of the long run. Sino- Pak military alliance that chiefly worked against India, natural friendship between the two largest democracies of the world and the need for a rapid advancement of our Defence capabilities, are the major paradigms that should determine India's approach to both development and security.
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Xi Jinping is implementing a two- fold strategy of seeking the economic route to becoming the second superpower and pursuing 'Sinicisation of Marxism' to define the future of Communist China. In a huge give and take between the Godless dictatorship of China and the fundamentalist regime of Pakistan, the former has invested on CPEC located on the territory of PoK ceded by Pakistan to China in the face of the Indian protests and got an opening into the Muslim world where sympathy for Islamic radicals has been on the rise.
Pakistan is close to the pro- US group led by Saudi Arabia and yet has a good equation with Islamic radical organizations represented by Taliban. With one leg in the camp of 'revivalists' -- Pakistan -- it mediated between the US and the Taliban on Afghanistan -- would be in a position to assure the Chinese that the Cold War game of the West using Pak-Afghan region to 'radicalise' Muslims of Xinjiang and other parts of China, would not be allowed. The axis of the two principal adversaries of India has become very active after the Indian Parliament scrapped Article 370 of the Constitution in August 2019 and converted J&K and Ladakh into union territories. India had successfully evolved a strategy of dealing with both China and Pakistan together.
Also Read : Why are India and China overpopulated?
It needs to be recalled that China drew the best lessons from the demise of the USSR -- it could clearly see that the Soviet regime had become an oligarchy that ignored the internal economic decline because of which it was not able to sustain the war in Afghanistan. This led Deng Xiaoping to adopt the policy of opening the Chinese market to the world in a controlled fashion and thus initiate a process of faster economic growth on which China has not looked back. China has become the second biggest global economy by investing in markets abroad and accessing technological knowledge wherever it was available -- including the research work of the US universities where it established 'Chairs' to reach out to the same.
Xi Jinping combines the persona of Deng and Mao Zedong and while consolidating Chinese economy further, he has reverted to the concept of supremacy of the Communist Party of China as the symbol of Marxism. This has helped him, among other things, to keep his leadership going on the strength of ideology and project it as something that was free of any personal vested interest. The recent conference of the Central Committee of CPC credited Xi Jinping with achievement of the first Centennial goal of making China a 'moderately prosperous society' by 2021 -- the hundredth year of the party's existence and acknowledged his pledge to make China a 'great modern Socialist country' by 2049 -- the second centennial mission marking the completion of hundred years since Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China. By highlighting the importance of 'ideology' and 'line', Xi Jinping has identified himself with the Party so completely that his leadership can not be easily challenged by any dissenters.
Under Xi Jinping, China is progressing economically and also politically extending its influence in the world taking care to buy time for its mission and somewhere following the doctrine of winning a war without a battle. It is joining multilateral platforms to create a non- combatant image, inducing economic dependence of other smaller nations on it through its Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) and forging bilateral alliances and pacts to further its geo- political advancement.
Pakistan is close to the pro- US group led by Saudi Arabia and yet has a good equation with Islamic radical organizations represented by Taliban.Unsplash
Sino- Pak strategic alliance -- an illustration of this multi-prong objective of China -- is a cause for great concern for India. China knows it can not change the Western systems and is not in a hurry to challenge the global economic order -- it is exploring alternate approaches of invading others economically and doing it successfully. As far as territorial expansion was concerned Xi's China adheres to its known 'two steps forward one step backward' strategy -- which is salami slicing of sorts -- that was in evidence on LAC as also in the Indo-Pacific. India has suitably responded to these moves on land as well as on sea by undertaking a matching military build up and actively joining in Quad, respectively.
Some analysts have perceptively noted that President Xi Jinping has embarked on a larger than life mission of surpassing Mao Zedong in building China as the dominant power of the world -- matching the place it once occupied in its civilizational history. His new strategy of bringing all 'under one heaven' compels a recall of the description the Chinese Emperor once enjoyed as the 'son of heaven'. It is remarkable that a Communist dictatorship carrying the stamp of Marxism today is deriving strength from the country's civilisational roots. This reflects the desire for world domination -- the Emperor of China expected 'tribute' from other countries as protection money.
Xi's China is also working on fail -- safe alliances -- using its economic hold as in the case of Pakistan. The defence expenditure of China has been on the rise -- in comparison to India it rose from a near parity in the Nineties to more than three times of India's defence budget, as at present. China's move forward is neither transactional nor transformational but a strategy of continuum -- steady in pace and direction --attempted on a good understanding of the global 'space' on land ,sea and air. Geo- politically China is now in the frame so far as the emerging scene of the world getting divided between two superpowers, was concerned.
The defence expenditure of China has been on the rise -- in comparison to India.Unsplash
India has set in motion a well- considered strategy of handling the economic and security challenges emanating from this situation. There was never any doubt that the US and India must together anchor the collective effort of the democratic world to counter the threat from the Communist dictatorships on one hand and that from Islamic extremists on the other.
The policy of the Modi government to have bilateral relations on the basis of mutuality of interests in the economic and security spheres has been very successful. India is enlarging the ambit of friendships with European democracies, Australia, Japan and Israel -- including association with Quad -- to promote collective security against these dangers. As a nation with a voice in the global matters pertaining to war and peace, India is working for self-reliance in the area of defence and building military strength to take on any aggressive move of the PLA on the LAC and punish Pakistan for any provocation from across the LOC.
India has maintained close friendship with Russia which has -- apart from defence deals with India -- been on the same page on the vital issues of Afghanistan and radicalization. It is the policy of mutuality of security interests in Afghanistan that has made India work in collaboration with Iran, notwithstanding the conflicts that this country had with the US and Israel. Indian diplomacy has worked hard to keep the Western powers convinced of the legitimacy of India's policy towards all these other countries.
Finally, there is an added challenge on the internal security front because of the intent of the China-Pak combine to instigate acts of terror, insurgency and sectarian discord in India in an attempt to destabilize this country. A new dimension of the domestic scene of India is the rise of civil society forums which in collusion with anti-India lobbies abroad and elements hostile to the Modi government at home, play politics by proxy on issues ranging from Kashmir to Northeast and from safety of Dalits and minorities to poverty alleviation. Fortunately, we are getting adequate Intelligence to draw a line between genuine protests and sponsored agitations.
(The writer is a former Director of Intelligence Bureau; the views expressed are personal)
(Keywords : president, prime minister, Biden, Xi Jinping, Narendra Modi, China, America, India, Pakistan, military, alliance, defence, challenge, concern, security, dominant, power, history. )
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