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## Aryabhata: The man from Bihar who gave world the concept of modern day Mathematics

By Prachi Mishra

Aryabhata was one of the first Indian mathematicians and astronomers belonging to the classical age. A pioneer in the field of mathematics, he went on to discover the digit 0.

He was born in 476 BC in Tarenaga, a town in Bihar, India. However, some sources mention that he belonged to Kerala. He completed his education at the well-known ancient University of Nalanda, which is located near Kusumapura in the present Indian state of Bihar. Since the University had an observatory in its premises, it is conjectured that Aryabhata was the principal of the institute as well.

Work in the field of Mathematics

Aryabhata wrote the scholarly work Aryabhattiya at a young age of 23, which is a summary of mathematics of his time. The work is divided into four sections. In the first section, the method of denoting big decimal numbers by alphabets has been described. The second section comprises of questions from topics of modern day Mathematics, such as number theory, geometry, trigonometry and Beejganita (algebra). The remaining two sections are on astronomy.

The discovery of zero enabled him to find out the exact distance between the earth and the moon. It also exposed a new feature of negative numerals.

For the first time, he gave the approximate value of pi as 3.1416. He arrived at this value by calculating the approximate circumference of a circle having a diameter of 20,000 units, which came out to be 62,832. He also gave the correct formula for calculating the area of a triangle.

He was also the first mathematician to give what later came to be known as the tables of Sines. The birth of trigonometry was influenced by his definitions of sine (jya), cosine (kojya), versine (utkrama-jya), and inverse sine (otkram jya).

Contribution to Astronomy

The last two sections of Aryabhattiya deal with astronomy.

Much before Copernicus enlightened the West with the discovery that sun is at the centre of solar system and all the planets including earth revolve around it, Aryabhata made this discovery by adopting the heliocentric theory. He disregarded the popular belief that earth is stationary and stated the theory that earth is round and rotates on its own axis, which causes the occurrence of day and night.

Aryabhatta challenged various prevalent superstitious beliefs and gave scientific explanations for many natural phenomena. He correctly stated that the moon and other planets do not have light of their own and shine because of the reflection of the light of the sun.

There was a popular Hindu belief that solar and lunar eclipses occurred because Rahu and Ketu (demon’s head) gobbled the sun and the moon. Aryabhata demolished this myth by proposing the theory that eclipses occur due to the shadows casted by the earth and the moon.

Due to his immense contribution towards developing mathematical and astronomical studies, the first satellite sent into orbit by India has been named after Aryabhata.

## This humanoid robot makes perfect human-like faces

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Robots evolve to do more work around us

As robots evolve to do more work around us, the UK-based humanoid robot manufacturer Engineered Arts has infused more human-like facial expressions into one of its robots, which may leave you with an eerie feeling.

In a video posted on YouTube, the robot called 'Ameca' displays various human expressions, like appearing to "wake up" from sleep, as its face shows confusion and frustration when it opens its eyes.

Once awake, 'Ameca' starts looking at its hands and arms, opens its mouth and raises its eyebrows, just like a human does.

At the end of the video, Ameca smiles and holds a welcoming hand out towards the viewer.

According to Engineered Arts, the humanoid bot is currently unable to walk and it is working towards giving it the ability in the near future.

"Designed specifically as a platform for development into future robotics technologies, 'Ameca' is the perfect humanoid robot platform for human-robot interaction," says the company.

The 'Ameca' hardware is a development based on its own research into humanoid robotics and built on its advanced 'Mesmer' technology.

Ameca' on display at the CES 2022 conference in Las Vegas in the US in January.Unsplash

Also read: NASA humanoid robot dances to technology

Engineered Arts is slated to put 'Ameca' on display at the CES 2022 conference in Las Vegas in the US in January.

"Human-like Artificial Intelligence needs a human-like artificial body. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning systems can be tested and developed on Ameca alongside our powerful 'Tritium' robot operating system," the company posted on its website. (IANS/PR)

(Keywords: Humanoid Robot, Ameca, Technology)

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## Websites used by China-based hackers taken over by Microsoft

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The Microsoft office

Microsoft has disrupted the activities of a China-based hacking group, gaining control of the malicious websites the group used to attack organisations in the US and 28 other countries around the world.

The Microsoft Digital Crimes Unit (DCU) said in a statement that a federal court in Virginia granted its request to seize websites of the hacking group called 'Nickel', enabling the company to cut off Nickel's access to its victims and prevent the websites from being used to execute attacks.

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"We believe these attacks were largely being used for intelligence gathering from government agencies, think tanks and human rights organisations," said Tom Burt, Corporate Vice President, Customer Security and Trust at Microsoft.

Obtaining control of the malicious websites and redirecting traffic from those sites to Microsoft's secure servers will help the company protect existing and future victims while learning more about Nickel's activities.

Also Read : Fortnite : A Gold Mine for Hackers

"Our disruption will not prevent Nickel from continuing other hacking activities, but we do believe we have removed a key piece of the infrastructure the group has been relying on for this latest wave of attacks," Burt said late on Monday.

To date, in 24 lawsuits - five against nation-state actors -- Microsoft has taken down more than 10,000 malicious websites used by cybercriminals and nearly 600 sites used by nation-state actors.

"We have also successfully blocked the registration of 600,000 sites to get ahead of criminal actors that planned to use them maliciously in the future," the tech giant informed.

"We believe these attacks were largely being used for intelligence gathering from government agencies, think tanks and human rights organisations."Unsplash

In some observed activity, Nickel malware used exploits targeting unpatched on-premises Exchange Server and SharePoint systems.

"However, we have not observed any new vulnerabilities in Microsoft products as part of these attacks. Microsoft has created unique signatures to detect and protect from known Nickel activity through our security products, like Microsoft 365 Defender," the company noted.

Nickel has targeted organisations in both the private and public sectors, including diplomatic organisations and ministries of foreign affairs in North America, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe and Africa. (IANS/SP)

(Keywords : hacking, China, Microsoft, website, victim, intelligence, attack, malicious, traffic, server, company, disruption, lawsuits, cybercriminals, vulnerability.)

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## MediaTek announces 5G tech, R&D expansion in India

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MediaTek's plans to boost technology democratisation and enable access to disruptive connectivity

Chip manufacturer MediaTek on Monday announced that it is focused on making 2022 a year aimed at rapid growth, business success, substantial expansion in Research and Development capabilities.

MediaTek's plans to boost technology democratisation and enable access to disruptive connectivity with its range of mainstream to flagship 5G chips.

"We at MediaTek are focused on making 2022 a year aimed at rapid growth, business success, and substantial expansion in our R&D capabilities. For 2022, we are focused on further strengthening our presence in India, offering incredible experiences to customers, and supporting the country's technology initiatives with our expertise and collaboration with leading OEMs," Anku Jain, Managing Director, MediaTek India said in a statement.

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In the flagship segment, MediaTek recently announced the Dimensity 9000 chip, which is a milestone of innovation and a rise to the incredible, built-to-power flagship 5G smartphones in the world, the company claims.

MediaTek Dimensity 9000 features a single Cortex-X2 performance core clocked at 3.05GHz, three Cortex-A710 cores at 2.85GHz and four Cortex-A510 efficiency cores at 1.8GHz.

It packs a 10-core Arm Mali-G710 that takes care of graphics processing, the report said.

The chipset also comes packed with MediaTek's fifth-generation APU with six total cores for AI processing.Unsplash

Also read: Realme Unveils First 5G Smartphone

The chipset also comes packed with MediaTek's fifth-generation APU with six total cores for AI processing.

The chipset can handle screens with up to a 180Hz refresh rate at Full HD+ resolutions. It is also the first chipset to have an 18-bit image signal processor, offering the ability to capture 4K HDR video using up to three cameras at the same time, or still photos using up to a massive 320MP sensor. (IANS/PR)

(Keywords: 5G, smartphones, Mediatek)

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