Saturday January 25, 2020

CSE Study to Identify Sources of Pollution in Real-Time

Delhi-NCR pollution: CSE study to identify sources of pollution in real-time

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Delhi, air pollution, cold, smog
People take early morning walk amid smog in New Delhi, Dec. 26, 2018. In the Indian capital, the air quality hovered between severe and very poor this week posing a serious health hazard for millions of people. VOA

The Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), in association with the Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) and leading instrumentation company Horiba, Japan launched a pilot study on Wednesday on real-time source apportionment of PM2.5 in Delhi and adjoining areas.

The objective of the study is to identify the signature of various sources of pollution and carry out source speciation in select hotspots in Delhi and the National Capital Region.

The study was launched by the CSE in a round-table meeting here.

The monitoring for the study will begin from January 28 and continue till April 28. In these three months, the study will monitor around a dozen locations in Delhi-NCR.

Delhi. air pollution
A man rides his bicycle in front of the India Gate shrouded in smog in New Delhi, Dec. 26, 2018. VOA

CSE deputy director general Chandra Bhushan said: “The pilot study will come out with signatures to identify the major sources of pollution in real time. Once we have established the signatures for various sources of pollution, the real-time elemental analysis will help us identify the source of pollution in an area, which will then help regulators in taking corrective action quickly.”

The study will be carried out using a ‘Real-time PM and Elemental Analyzer PX-375’, which is a product of Horiba, and gives a continuous analysis of PM2.5 concentration and its elemental composition.

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The technology used for monitoring PM2.5 is Beta-Ray Attenuation; the elemental analysis would be done using X-ray fluorescence technology. The instrument for the study will be co-located with the DPCC’s continuous air pollution monitoring stations.

“This is an opportunity to move from static one-time source apportionment to dynamic source identification and realtime mitigation. It can inform the ongoing efforts and processes to implement the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP) and the Comprehensive Action Plan (CAP) for a more effective impact,” Anumita Roychowdhury, executive director-research and advocacy, CSE said in a statement. (IANS)

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Exposure To High Levels of Air Pollution May Lead To Changes Children’s Brain Structure

Previous studies of traffic-related air pollution suggest that it contributes to neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders

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Air Pollution
The researchers found that children with higher levels of air pollution exposure at birth had reductions at age 12 in gray matter volume and cortical thickness as compared to children with lower levels of exposure. Pixabay

Exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution at age 1 may lead to structural changes in the brain at the age of 12 which can influence the development of various physical and mental processes, warns a study.

The researchers found that children with higher levels of air pollution exposure at birth had reductions at age 12 in gray matter volume and cortical thickness as compared to children with lower levels of exposure. Gray matter includes regions of the brain involved in motor control as well as sensory perception, such as seeing and hearing. Cortical thickness reflects the outer gray matter depth.

The study, published online in the journal PLOS One, found that specific regions in the frontal and parietal lobes and the cerebellum were affected with decreases on the order of three to four per cent. “The results of this study, though exploratory, suggest that where you live and the air you breathe can affect how your brain develops,” said lead author of the study Travis Beckwith, PhD, a research fellow at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in the US.

“While the percentage of loss is far less than what might be seen in a degenerative disease state, this loss may be enough to influence the development of various physical and mental processes,” Beckwith said. For the study, the researchers used magnetic resonance imaging to obtain anatomical brain images from 147 kids.

These children are a subset of the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS), which recruited volunteers prior to the age of six months to examine early childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution and health outcomes.

Pollution
Exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution at age 1 may lead to structural changes in the brain at the age of 12 which can influence the development of various physical and mental processes, warns a study. Pixabay

The volunteers in the CCAAPS had either high or low levels of pollution exposure during their first year of life. The researchers estimated exposure using an air sampling network of 27 sites in the Cincinnati area, and 24/7 sampling was conducted simultaneously at four or five sites over different seasons.

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Participating children and their caregivers completed clinic visits at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 12. Previous studies of traffic-related air pollution suggest that it contributes to neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. (IANS)