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Depression related to brain mechanism, identified by a new research

Brain mechanism is identified as the reason behind depression which has been found by a new research

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Depression related to brain mechanism.
Depression related to brain mechanism. IANS
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  • A new research finds out the relation between brain mechanism and depression
  • Brain and memory related areas involved in depression

London, Dec 13, 2017: People suffer from major depressive disorders because of alterations in the activity and connectivity of brain systems underlying reward and memory, suggests new research.

The findings, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, provide clues as to which regions of the brain could be at the root of symptoms, such as reduced happiness and pleasure, or negative memories, in depression.

For the study, the researchers used a new approach to measure the influence of one brain region on another, referred to as effective connectivity, in depression.

The approach goes beyond the limitations of previous brain imaging studies, which show if — but not how — activity of different brain regions is related.

“The new method allows the effect of one brain region on another to be measured in depression, in order to discover more about which brain systems make causal contributions to depression,” said one of the researchers Edmund Rolls, Professor at University of Warwick in England.

The researchers compared 336 people with major depressive disorder to 350 healthy controls.

Brain regions involved in reward and subjective pleasure received less drive (or reduced effective connectivity) in patients, which may contribute to the decreased feeling of happiness in depression, the study showed.

In addition, brain regions involved in punishment and responses when a reward is not received had increased activity, providing evidence for the source of sadness that occurs in the disorder.

Memory-related areas of the brain had increased activity and connectivity in people with depression, which the authors suggest may be related to heightened memory processing, possibly of unpleasant memories, in depression.

“These findings are part of a concerted approach to better understand the brain mechanisms related to depression, and thereby to lead to new ways of understanding and treating depression,” Rolls said. (IANS)

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Are bullied kids prone to suicidal behaviour?

Children who experienced severe peer victimisation were more than twice as likely to report depression or low moods at age 15, and three times more likely to report anxiety

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Victimization in early school days leads to anxiety. Pixabay
Victimization in early school days leads to anxiety. Pixabay
  • Children face most severe levels of victimization from the beginning of their schooling.
  • These kids develop significant symptoms of suicidal behaviour and anxiety.
  • Even after the victimization ends, it affects still pertains.

A study found that children who face bullying can be at a risk of developing mental health issues, suicidal thoughts and anxiety in their years. For the study, the team looked at 1,363 children who were followed until the age of 15 years.

About 59 percent of participants had experienced some peer victimisation in the first years of elementary school, although it generally declined as the children grew older.

“Our findings showed a general tendency, in about 15 percent of the children, of being exposed to the most severe levels of victimisation from the beginning of their education until the transition to high school,” said Marie-Claude Geoffroy, from the McGill University in Canada.

Also Read: Anxiety and depression genetic, says research

Even though victimization can end after school days, its affect still pertains. Pixabay
Even though victimization can end after school days, its affect still pertains. Pixabay

Findings

  • Children who experienced severe peer victimisation were more than twice as likely to report depression or low moods at age 15, and three times more likely to report anxiety.
  • This group of children were also 3.5 times more likely to report serious suicidal thoughts or attempt suicide.

“Those children were at greater risk of debilitating depressive/dysthymic symptoms or anxiety and of suicidality in adolescence than less severely victimised children, even after we accounted for a plethora of confounders assessed throughout childhood,” Geoffroy added.

Also read: List of 8 Food Items to Battle Depression and Anxiety

“Although peer victimisation starts to decrease by the end of childhood, individuals in the severe trajectory group were still being exposed to the highest level of victimisation in early adolescence,” Geoffroy noted.

Severe peer victimisation may contribute to the development of mental health problems in adolescence, thus, it is important to prevent victimisation early in the lifespan, the results suggest.

The study was published in journal CMAJ. (IANS)

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