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Divided into Two: ‘Gora’ and ‘Kala’, Bene Israel is a Jewish community from India

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An Bene Israel Family Image source: indianquarterly.com
  • Bene Israels are also known as Indian Jews
  • There are total 80,000 Indian Jews in Israel
  • Most Bene Jews are of view that they left India because their community growth was continuously declining in India

Bene Israel meaning ‘Sons of Israel’ are said to have migrated from India over the last few decades. It will surprise many that they are also known as Indian Jews community. This  is one of the 4 sub-communities of Jews and now in Israel, there are about 80,000 Indian Jews.

Jewish lady. Image Souce: Wikimedia Commons
Jewish lady. Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

The population includes- Cochin jews, Baghdadi Jews (Jews belong from Kolkata) and those belonging to ‘Manashe’ tribe from Manipur. However, the Bene Israel continues to believe that their ancestors belong to the Konkan area in India.

After India achieved freedom in 1947 and a year later, Israel was formed in 1948. All Jews migrated to Israel as they felt their conditions were precarious in India. Bene Israel believes that around 1000 AD Jewish merchant David Rahabi came into India led the foundation of Bene Israel, said thehindu.com report.

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Bene Israel divides themselves into two groups- ‘Gora’ means white and ‘Kala’ means black. It says that whose both mother and father are Jews falls in Gora community while the Kala constitutes people whose fathers are Jewish and mother from any other community. There is a discrimination in these two communities. Gora defines them as superiors and does not mingle with Kala and member from Gora community cannot marry anyone from Kala community.

The Bene Jews had a unique custom known as ‘Malida’. In Malida, Bene Israel sits with a plate full of rice, spices, fruits and flowers. During this, they praise Lord by singing songs and narrate two stories about Prophet Elijah.

Malida custom of Bene Jews. Image Souce: forward.com
Malida custom of Bene Jews. Image Source: forward.com

According to a report in The Hindu, Bene Israel does not consider themselves as Jews until the 20th century. They were known as ‘Yehudi’ or ‘Bene Israel’ until the 20th century, but now they refer themselves as Jews. Today, many people in India also refer Jews as Bene Israel or Israel.

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Most Bene Jews share the view that they left India because their community growth was continuously declining in India. Unlike, UK and USA, they do not enjoy the same position as other Jews in Israel. While most of the Jews migrated to Israel, a small population migrated to English-speaking countries like Australia, UK and USA.

Now there are only 5,000 Bene Israels are left in India, out of which, more than 90% lives in Thana, a suburb of Mumbai.

-This article is compiled by a staff-writer at NewsGram.

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This AI System Can Evade Censorship In India, China and Kazakhstan

Researchers develop an AI tool that evades censorship in India, China and Kazakhstan

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(AI)-based system automatically learns to evade censorship in India, China and Kazakhstan. Pixabay

Researchers have developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based system that automatically learns to evade censorship in India, China and Kazakhstan.

The tool, called Geneva (short for Genetic Evasion), found dozens of ways to circumvent censorship by exploiting gaps in censors’ logic and finding bugs that the researchers said would have been virtually impossible for humans to find manually.

The researchers are scheduled to introduce Geneva during a peer-reviewed talk at the Association for Computing Machinery’s 26th Conference on Computer and Communications Security in London on Thursday.

“With Geneva, we are, for the first time, at a major advantage in the censorship arms race,” said Dave Levin, an assistant professor of computer science at the University of Maryland in the US and senior author of the paper.

“Geneva represents the first step toward a whole new arms race in which artificial intelligence systems of censors and evaders compete with one another. Ultimately, winning this race means bringing free speech and open communication to millions of users around the world who currently don’t have them,” Levin said.\

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This AI system that evades censorship is called ‘Geneva’. Pixabay

To demonstrate that Geneva worked in the real world against undiscovered censorship strategies, the team ran Geneva on a computer in China with an unmodified Google Chrome browser installed.

By deploying strategies identified by Geneva, the user was able to browse free of keyword censorship.

The researchers also successfully evaded censorship in India, which blocks forbidden URLs, and Kazakhstan, which was eavesdropping on certain social media sites at the time, said a statement from the University of Maryland.

All information on the Internet is broken into data packets by the sender’s computer and reassembled by the receiving computer.

One prevalent form of Internet censorship works by monitoring the data packets sent during an Internet search.

The censor blocks requests that either contain flagged keywords (such as “Tiananmen Square” in China) or prohibited domain names (such as “Wikipedia” in many countries).

When Geneva is running on a computer that is sending out web requests through a censor, it modifies how data is broken up and sent, so that the censor does not recognise forbidden content or is unable to censor the connection.

Known as a genetic algorithm, Geneva is a biologically inspired type of AI that Levin and his team developed to work in the background as a user browses the web from a standard Internet browser.

Like biological systems, Geneva forms sets of instructions from genetic building blocks. But rather than using DNA as building blocks, Geneva uses small pieces of code.

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By deploying strategies identified by Geneva, the user is able to browse free of keyword censorship. Pixabay

Individually, the bits of code do very little, but when composed into instructions, they can perform sophisticated evasion strategies for breaking up, arranging or sending data packets.

The tool evolves its genetic code through successive attempts (or generations). With each generation, Geneva keeps the instructions that work best at evading censorship and kicks out the rest.

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Geneva mutates and cross breeds its strategies by randomly removing instructions, adding new instructions, or combining successful instructions and testing the strategy again.

Through this evolutionary process, Geneva is able to identify multiple evasion strategies very quickly, said the study. (IANS)