Sunday November 19, 2017

Famous Pre Human ‘Lucy’ likely to have died after falling from a tree: Study

Researchers reached their conclusions after extensive X-ray scanning of the skeleton over 10 days when they were able to borrow the skeleton

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A reconstruction of "Lucy", a female Australopithecus Afarensis. Source: wikipedia

August 30, 2016: According to Researchers from University of Texas, Lucy, our most famous ancestor, may have died due to a fall from a tree, after they analysed her fossilized bones.

The Australopithecus afarensis, which walked upright, lived in Africa between three- and four million years ago. Her partial skeleton was unearthed in 1974.

Some experts disagree with the conclusion, arguing instead that her bones were broken after the young adult hominid died.

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Lead author John Kappelman told The Washington Post there were some cracks that appeared to have happened post-mortem, but there were also apparent compression fractures likely cause by some kind of impact.

Researchers reached their conclusions after extensive X-ray scanning of the skeleton over 10 days when they were able to borrow the skeleton, which is usually kept in Ethiopia.

“We scanned nonstop, 24/7, for 10 days,” Kappelman, a the University of Texas at Austin anthropology and geological sciences professor, told the Post. “We were exhausted. I was happy to see her come, but I was happy to see her go.”

“Orthopedic surgeons see these breaks day in and day out all over the planet,” Kappelman said. He’s had several specialists take a look at Lucy’s big break.

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“To the person, it’s not like, ‘Oh, you know, there’s a chance.’ They say, ‘This is what it is; we see it in our practice all the time.’ We have been able to demonstrate that these are matches to what is widely seen in the literature in patients recovering from a fall,” he said.

But some experts are dubious.

“I’ve worked in eastern Africa at these sites for many years, and there’s hardly a fossil out there that doesn’t have damage like Lucy has,” said William Kimbel, director of the Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University, during an interview with The Washington Post.

“I just don’t buy it,” said Kimbel, who was not involved in the research.

The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin and appeared in Monday’s issue of the journal Nature. (VOA)

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Oldest recorded solar eclipse occurred 3,200 years ago

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Solar eclipse

Cambridge University researchers have pinpointed the date of what could be the oldest solar eclipse yet recorded. The event, which occurred on October 30, 1207 BC, is mentioned in the Bible, and could help historians to date Egyptian pharaohs.

“Solar eclipses are often used as a fixed point to date events in the ancient world,” said Professor Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge’s Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy.

Using a combination of the biblical text and an ancient Egyptian text, the researchers were able to refine the dates of the Egyptian pharaohs, in particular, the dates of the reign of Ramesses the Great, according to the study published in the journal Astronomy & Geophysics.

The biblical text in question comes from the Old Testament book of Joshua and has puzzled biblical scholars for centuries.

It records that after Joshua led the people of Israel into Canaan, a region of the ancient Near East that covered modern-day Israel and Palestine – he prayed: “Sun, stand still at Gibeon, and Moon, in the Valley of Aijalon. And the Sun stood still, and the Moon stopped until the nation took vengeance on their enemies.”

“If these words are describing a real observation, then a major astronomical event was taking place – the question for us to figure out is what the text actually means,” Humphreys said.

“Modern English translations, which follow the King James translation of 1611, usually interpret this text to mean that the Sun and Moon stopped moving,” Humphreys said.

“But going back to the original Hebrew text, we determined that an alternative meaning could be that the Sun and Moon just stopped doing what they normally do: they stopped shining. In this context, the Hebrew words could be referring to a solar eclipse, when the Moon passes between the earth and the Sun, and the Sun appears to stop shining,” Humphreys said.

This interpretation is supported by the fact that the Hebrew word translated ‘stand still’ has the same root as a Babylonian word used in ancient astronomical texts to describe eclipses, he added.

Independent evidence that the Israelites were in Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC can be found in the Merneptah Stele, an Egyptian text dating from the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, son of the well-known Ramesses the Great, the study said.

The large granite block, held in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, says that it was carved in the fifth year of Merneptah’s reign and mentions a campaign in Canaan in which he defeated the people of Israel.

Earlier historians had used these two texts to try to date the possible eclipse, but were not successful as they were only looking at total eclipses, in which the disc of the Sun appears to be completely covered by the moon as the moon passes directly between the earth and the sun.

What the earlier historians failed to consider was that it was instead an annular eclipse, in which the Moon passes directly in front of the Sun, but is too far away to cover the disc completely, the researchers said.

In the ancient world, the same word was used for both total and annular eclipses.

The researchers developed a new eclipse code, which takes into account variations in the Earth’s rotation over time.

From their calculations, they determined that the only annular eclipse visible from Canaan between 1500 and 1050 BC was on 30 October 1207 BC, in the afternoon.

If their arguments are accepted, it would not only be the oldest solar eclipse yet recorded, it would also enable researchers to date the reigns of Ramesses the Great and his son Merneptah to within a year.

Using these new calculations, the researchers determined that Ramesses the Great reigned from 1276-1210 BC, with a precision of plus or minus one year.(IANS)

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Baby Survives 123 Days in Brain Dead Mother’s Womb in Portugal: Science Attached to Music and our Brains

The baby in the womb of the brain dead mother can be delivered if the body is kept alive or functioning

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The findings if a new study by MIT researchers could offer a possible way to reduce the risk of autism.
  • A baby can still make it to the world after the mother has been pronounced brain dead
  • To keep the body functioning requires continuous medical support
  • Essential hormones and nutrients must be supplied to the body of the brain dead mother

New Delhi, July 28, 2017: Twins in the womb of a brain-dead mother making it to the world, sounds no less than a miracle. A case in which the body of the mother was kept alive as a ‘living incubator’ and after 123 days, 2 babies were born in Lisbon, Portugal, confirms its possibility.

Sandra was pronounced brain dead after a heart attack. She was at that time 17 weeks pregnant, and it was presumed that the baby had also died. However, when the doctors in the intensive care unit, detected signs of life, they decided to consult the family on whether to keep Sandra’s body functioning, in an attempt to deliver the baby alive.

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“Following the opinion of the ethics committee and clinical management of that hospital, and a concerted decision by the mother’s family and the paternal family of the child, it was agreed to maintain the pregnancy up to 32 weeks in order to ensure the viability of the foetus,” a statement by the hospital, mentioned The Telegraph report.

ALSO READ: ‘Science Fiction’ Cancer Therapy helps to fight people with deadly Brain Tumors: Study

Sandra’s body was supplied essential hormones through tubes, which were also used to feed her and keep her breathing. The staff members and doctors at Lisbon’s San Jose Hospital used to sing songs to the unborn babies and touch the belly of the dead mother which happened to have worked wonders.

In a more recent case, in Brazil, a brain dead mother successfully gave birth to twins after the doctor managed to keep her alive for 123 days. The case tops any other reported instances of fetuses surviving in the womb of the brain dead mother.

Frankielen da Silva Zampoli Padilha, 21, died during pregnancy in October last year after suffering a stroke. In February, this year, her twins arrived in this world. Frankielen’s body was also kept alive to save her unborn children.

The procedure of bringing the unborn in the womb of a brain dead mother, to the world, is indeed complicated. Maintaining pressure, oxygenation, continuous nutrition, hormonal balance etc, requires the continuous support of medication. The blood pressure, blood flow needs to be constantly scrutinized as well.

But this, after all, can be considered as a mother’s last gift to her child!

-prepared by Samiksha Goel of NewsGram. Twitter @goel_samiksha

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Landmark Achievement: 6 Astronomers from India Discover Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs)

A team of 6 astronomers from India have reportedly discovered Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs) which are the largest known galaxies in the universe

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Giant Radio Galaxies
Out of total known galaxies, only 300 have been classifies as Giant Radio Galaxies. Wikimedia
  • Six astronomers from India have recently discovered the largest galaxies known to the universe, called Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs)
  • Only 300 out of total number of galaxies are classified as Giang Radio Galaxies
  • The research was successful taking into account the research of last 6 decades of radio astronomy

July 06, 2017: A team of six astronomers from India has made a landmark discovery. Using the research from last six decades of radio astronomy and a 20-year-old survey, the team has detected the existence of Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs).

Giant Radio Galaxies are known to be the largest galaxies in the universe. The reason for their large size is unknown as of now. As one of the lead researcher, Pratik Dabhade from Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), explains in the study, “The huge size of GRGs has defied any theoretical explanation so far. Our work will help in understanding how these galaxies grow to be so large.”

The other researchers also involved include Joydeep Bagchi (IUCAA), Mamta Pommier (CNRS Observatoire de Lyon), Madhuri Gaikwad (Max Planck Institute Bonn), Shishir Sankhyayan (IISER Pune) and Somak Raychaudhary (IUCAA).

Also Read: “Do not Stand and Drink Water”: Here is Why it is often said so

Their research has been published in Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The Giant Radio Galaxies are found co-existing with a supermassive black hole at the core of center of the nucleus. High energy particles are discharged at the speed of light which emerges into two giant radio lobes.

The Giant Radio Galaxies are known to be the last stage of evolution of galaxies, mainly because of their massive size. However, these galaxies are visible only through radio telescopes.

– by Saksham Narula of NewsGram. Twitter: @Saksham2394