The Gurdwara Sahib Stockton in Stockton was built by the Sikhs who had settled in America, over 100 years ago
According to Amarjit Singh, the Sikhs build a Gurudwara wherever they settle in the world and that is their way to keep in touch with their culture, not only their religion
The Gurudwara at Stockton still remains vibrant with Sikhs and visitors from all over America, even after so many years
A number of Sikhs have been living in the United States of America for 125 years, now. Currently, their population in the U.S. is 700,000. Amarjit Singh, a U.S. based Sikh and an ex-President of the committee of Gurdwara Sahib Stockton, said that wherever there are Sikhs, there must be a Gurdwara. He further asserted that it is not only because it is a place for their religious worship but it is a part and parcel of their culture which holds the entire community together.
The Sikhs can still be recognized in the U.S. in spite of having completely adjusted to the life there. The symbols that help them to keep in touch with their origin are the steel kara around their wrist, the turban, the kirpan and their uncut hair.
The Gurdwara Sahib Stockton in Stockton, U.S. was built over 100 years ago. Even now it serves as a place of religious, cultural and social meetings for the Sikhs near the area. Recently, it had a number of people coming in and preparing for the 18th annual Vaisakhi Day Parade. It is said that the parade to commemorate the establishment of Khalsaby Guru Govind Singh has over a thousand pilgrims joining in. The pilgrims sing songs of praise as the procession moves through the way.
The first Gurdwara in the U.S. was built in 1912 when a lot of Sikhs came to settle down in the sun-drenched Central Valley, which closely resembled their ancestral land of Punjab. However, at first the Gurdwara was built with wood in Holt, west of Stockton but the committee members could not afford the land. So, they shifted to build the temple at Stockton itself.
Today, the Gurdwara Sahib Stockton at 1930 S. Sikh Temple Street, remains open to all visitors, even the non-religious ones. It is a two-storied building with a beautiful chandeliered ceiling. They do not have any chairs or special sitting arrangements. The Sikhs, there, are very accommodating and ever so ready to share their food and culture with others. Their only request to anybody entering the temple is that they keep their shoes outside and cover their heads. Whoever is interested in getting a meal can get a taste of the ethnic Sikh cuisine at the Gurdwara, for free.
Even after so many years, the Sikhs in the U.S. have evidently kept in touch with their roots through the Gurdwara that their ancestors had built. Singh said to the Recordnet.com that the temple “is part of our life.”
The size and scope of Russia’s efforts to interfere in the 2016 U.S. presidential election was far more extensive and thorough than previously understood, according to two newly released reports.
The reports that emerged this week support conclusions by the U.S. intelligence community — and published in an unclassified January 2017 report — that the goal of all of Russia’s meddling in the months leading up to the 2016 elections was to get their preferred candidate elected president of the United States.
“What is clear is that all of the messaging clearly sought to benefit the Republican Party and specifically Donald Trump,” according to the report by Oxford University’s Computational Propaganda Project and network analysis firm Graphika.
Russia on Tuesday rejected the allegations in the two reports. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov called the accusations baseless.
The findings, as first reported by The Washington Post, said Russians working for a group called the Internet Research Agency (IRA) began experimenting with social media to influence local elections in 2009 and expanded its operations to U.S. elections in 2013 using Twitter.
It gradually added other popular social media sites to its campaign, including YouTube, Facebook and Instagram, using race and social issues such as gun rights, immigration and police brutality, to sow division and discontent.
“Conservative and right-wing voters were actively encouraged to get behind Trump’s campaign,” according to the report by Oxford and Graphika. “Other voters were encouraged to boycott the election, abstain from voting for Clinton, or to spread cynicism about participating in the election in general.”
Russia’s IRA activity also sought out African-American voters in particular with advertising on Facebook and Instagram and with video content on YouTube.
“Most of the interest-based targeting focused on African-American communities and interests,” the second report by the cybersecurity firm New Knowledge showed.
“Messaging to African-Americans sought to divert their political energy away from established political institutions by preying on anger with structural inequalities faced by African-Americans, including police violence, poverty and disproportionate levels of incarceration,” the Oxford University-Graphika report added. “These campaigns pushed a message that the best way to advance the cause of the African-American community was to boycott the election and focus on other issues instead.”
Other groups such as liberals, women, Muslims, Latinos and veterans were also targeted with similar messages either appealing to their politics or trying to discourage them from voting.
This newly released data demonstrates how aggressively Russia sought to divide Americans by race, religion and ideology, and how the IRA actively worked to erode trust in our democratic institutions,” Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Richard Burr, a Republican, said in a statement Monday. “Most troublingly, it shows that these activities have not stopped.”
“This should stand as a wake-up call,” added Senate Intelligence Committee vice chair, Democrat Mark Warner, who has been critical of social media companies and the way they have handled Russia’s online influence campaigns.
“It is time to get serious in addressing this challenge,” Warner said. “That is going to require some much-needed and long-overdue guardrails when it comes to social media.”
The Oxford-Graphika report said it is clear the response by social media companies has been lacking.
“We clearly observe a belated and uncoordinated response from the platforms that provided the data,” the report said. “In some cases, activity on one platform was detected and suspended months before similar action was taken against related activity on another platform.”
In a statement Monday, Facebook said it continues to “fully cooperate with officials investigating the IRA’s activity on Facebook and Instagram around the 2016 election.”
“We’ve made progress in helping prevent interference on our platforms during elections, strengthened our policies against voter suppression ahead of the 2018 midterms, and funded independent research on the impact of social media on democracy,” the statement said, adding the company believes Congress and intelligence officials “are best placed to use the information we and others provide.”
“Our singular focus is to improve the health of the public conversation on our platform,” Twitter said in a statement of its own. “We’ve made significant strides since 2016 to counter manipulation of our service, including our release of additional data in October related to previously disclosed activities to enable further independent academic research and investigation.”
The reports, though, indicate the measures that have been taken may not be enough, as Russia and others continue to make use of social media platforms.
The Oxford-Graphika report said Russia’s use of social media did not peak until after the election, with the IRA buying the most ad volume on Facebook in April 2017, shortly after the U.S. airstrikes against chemical weapon sites in Syria.
And U.S. intelligence and military officials have told VOA that Russia continued to target segments of U.S. society, including ongoing efforts to influence U.S. military personnel and their families in the run-up to the 2018 midterm elections.
The United States has already leveled criminal charges against IRA for interfering in the 2016 campaign.
Current and former intelligence officials also warn that it would be a mistake to focus only on Russia’s use of social media, pointing to last week’s guilty plea by Russian spy Maria Butina, who admitted to using the National Rifle Association to get close to key conservative politicians.
“It illustrates … the astute understanding the Russians have of our political ecosystem,” James Clapper, former director of National Intelligence, told VOA.
Special Counsel Robert Mueller is investigating whether the Trump campaign colluded with Russia to influence the 2016 election and whether the president has tried to obstruct justice by trying to undermine the probe.