New York, September 20, 2017: People living with HIV who adhere to antiretroviral therapy, but smoke tobacco cigarettes are more likely to die from lung cancer than from AIDS, a study led by an Indian-origin researcher has revealed.
The findings showed that overall people with HIV who take antiviral medicines, but who also smoke are six to 13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than from HIV/AIDS, depending on the intensity of smoking and their sex.
“Smoking and HIV are a particularly bad combination when it comes to lung cancer,” said lead author Krishna Reddy, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).
“Lung cancer is now one of the leading killers of people with HIV, but most of these deaths can be prevented,” added Rochelle Walensky, Professor at Harvard Medical School.
Among men who continued to be heavy smokers, an estimated 29 percent would die of lung cancer by age 80, as would 23 per cent of moderate smokers and 19 per cent of light smokers.
For women who continued to be heavy smokers, an estimated 29 percent would die of lung cancer by age 80, as would 21 per cent of moderate smokers and 17 per cent of light smokers.
“The data tell us that now is the time for action: smoking cessation programmes should be integrated into HIV care just like antiviral therapy,” Reddy said in the paper published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine.
However, among those who managed to quit smoking at age 40, only about six per cent die of lung cancer.
“Quitting smoking is one of the most important things that people with HIV can do to improve their health and live longer,” suggested Travis Baggett, Assistant Professor at the Harvard Medical School.
London, Nov 1: Air pollution can increase the risk of death from kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer besides causing lung cancer, a study has showed.
According to researchers, air pollution represents a complex mixture of a broad range of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances that may play a role in chronic systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in tissues that could ultimately prove fatal.
“This research suggests that the effect of air pollution was not associated with death from most non-lung cancers, but the associations with kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer deserve further investigation,” said lead author Michelle Turner, researcher at the Barcelona Institute of Global Health (ISGlobal) in Spain.
For the study, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, the team included more than 600,000 adults in the US and examined associations of mortality from cancer at 29 sites with long-term residential exposure to three ambient pollutants: PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3).
Over 43,000 non-lung cancer deaths were registered among the participants. PM2.5 was associated with mortality from kidney and bladder cancer, with a 14 and 13 per cent increase respectively, for each 4.4 µg/m3 (microgram) increase in exposure.
In turn, exposure to NO2 was associated with colorectal cancer death, with a 6 per cent increase per each 6.5 ppb (parts per billion) increment.
No significant associations were observed with cancer at other sites. (IANS)
Smoking does kill you from within and lowers your stability and productivity. It leads to chronic and deadly diseases which will keep you frustrated all the while. Now that you are already aware of smoking cessation, are you trying to quit smoking since days but to no avail? Not sure how to effectively quit smoking cigarettes?
You must give a try to the following tips to quit smoking and enjoy a healthy and smoke-free life without nicotine.
Make an honest list of things about your likes and dislikes about smoking
Take a paper and jot down the points of your likes and dislikes about smoking both on either sides of the page. Ponder over your list and make necessary changes. If possible, try to get feedback from your family or friends to know their opinion about smoking. Make a list of how smoking interferes with your daily life. When the negative side seems to escalate the positive side, you know that you need to quit smoking right now.
Write down all your reasons for quitting
Well, you already know who are your precious ones that you don’t want to give over smoking. Your wife, husband, daughter, son, parents, …are the ones who had love to see you quit smoking without being selfish.
Prepare a list of why quitting won’t be easy
Be strict with yourself when it comes to quit smoking. Make a list of immediate and broad reasons of difficulty that can arise in your way to quit smoking. Write your reason of difficulty along with an alternate solution to overcome it. Stress more on the possible alternatives that you can take to pass that unhealthy habit.
Fix up a quit date
Set up a dateline to quit smoking on that specific day. Include a witness who pushes you to quit smoking, to sign in along with you.
Stop buying cartons of cigarettes
Try to buy only a packet at a time and carry the least in your pocket. So for the next time, when you had the urge to smoke, you wont have one handy. This will decrease your urge into continuous smoking.
Prepare a list of things to do when a craving hits
Include activities which you can do very easily at any moment. Some of them to add in your list: take a nap, take a short walk, drink water, kiss your partner or child, involve in outdoor sport or with your pet, wash the car, have sex, chew a piece of gum, wash your face, brush your teeth, make a cup of coffee or tea, practice your deep breathing. Make multiple copies of the list and keep updating on the one that you carry all the while in the process to quit smoking.
Collect all the money you’re saving on cigarettes in a large glass jar
Get to know the amount that you had been spending on smoking and that if you quit smoking, this money could help you travel all your dreams. You had go on a vacation as an incentive to yourself or maybe spend lavishly at a five star rated restaurant that you thought you could never afford.
Find a healthy snack food or Switch to herbal tea
Quit smoking by having a healthy diet. Add nutrient-rich food that will stop your craving for smoking. Drink herbal tea whenever necessary, it will reduce your stress level and work in the same way smoking relieved you. If you are worried about weight gain, eat sunflower seeds, sugar-free lollipops, or gum, or carrot or nuts.
Post your list in a visible location in your house
Whenever you feel tempted to light up a cigarette, take a look at your list stating all the ways smoking can and affect and damage your health:
• Increases risk of bladder, pancreatic, lung, mouth, and other cancers, including leukemia
• Increases risk of diabetes
Increases heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease and high blood pressure
• Leads to depression, anger, Affects mental capacity and memory
• Contributes to thin bones and reduces fertility
• Affects ability to smell and taste
• May harm the premature babies by resulting in low-birth-weight.
To minimize cravings, change your routine for good
Whenever the urge deepens, you need to sit back and breathe for a moment. Change your daily timings when you were supposed to smoke. Alter this list and write down the things you’d like to include in your healthy life and quit smoking.
Inform your Dear ones: Family, friends, Colleagues about how you feel to quit smoking
Don’t hesitate to share your feelings about your decision to quit smoking. Just open up with the ones who would be proud to hear about your attempts to quit smoking. If you’re having mood swings of emotions with anger and patience mixed up, try to accept what improvements are still required to be covered.
If you miss out and skip, just start over again
It’s just this simple. Maybe you could have failed, but there’s always an end to an unhealthy way of life if you try. Get yourself succesful this time to quit smoking and prove wrong to the opposed around you.
-Prepared by Bhavana Rathi of NewsGram. Twitter @tweet_bhavana
North Carolina, October 23, 2017 : Vaping and e-cigarettes comprise a considerably new trend in the market, having been around for only for a decade or so. While their use has not been widespread, with mostly the younger population choosing it, a majority of the people are not even aware about it. However, out of those who know, it is a common belief that e-cigarettes are a healthier alternative to regular smoking.
Contrary to regular cigarettes that burn tobacco, e-cigarettes deliver nicotine to the smoker in the form of water vapor. Due to this diluted consumption, most people imagine vaping is healthier than smoking. But is that really true?
While it will not be wrong to say that e-cigarette vapor smoke does not contain the same composition and amount of carcinogenic compounds as regular cigarette smoke, a new research suggests that ‘vaping’ may have its own harmful effects.
According to researchers from the University of North Carolina, the use of e-cigarettes can lead to inflammatory lung disease, triggered by extremely harmful response in the lung to the vapor smoke.
The Study Findings
For the study that has been published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine researchers examined the sputum samples of 44 non-smokers, e-cigarette users, and current cigarette smokers. Sputum is a combination of saliva and mucus, coughed from the respiratory tract which is often caused by some infection or disease.
Analysis found that the batch of e-cigarette smokers had a significant increase in neutrophil granulocyte- and neutrophil-extracellular-trap (NET)-related proteins, which are our immune system’s first line of defense against infection causing pathogens.
However, it was also revealed that while neutrophils are helpful in combating infectious pathogens, they are also known to contribute to lung diseases like COPD (a group of lung diseases that block the air flow, making it difficult to breathe) and cystic fibrosis (a life threatening disorder that gravely damages the lungs and the digestive system).
Additionally, the researchers also identified a similar positive trend in specific biomarkers of oxidative stress between e-cigarette users and regular cigarette smokers that have been understood as causative of lung diseases.
Furthermore, common increase in mucinn 5AC, which is associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis, was revealed in both, e-cigarette and cigarette users.
While smoking, in any way, is harmful, it is important to note here that regular cigarette smoke and vapor smoke are two different compounds which can (and do) have different effects on the body. According to Dr. Mehmet Kesimer, senior author of the new study, “Comparing the harm of e-cigarettes with cigarettes is a little like comparing apples to oranges.”
The senior researcher added that the research shows that e-cigarettes have a signature of harm in the lung, which is very similar to that of regular cigarettes, but also unique in its own way. A broader understanding of the harm done by vapor smoke can thus, have implications that challenge the popular belief that it is healthier alternative to consume vapor smoke from e-cigarettes than regular smoking.
It must be noted here that this study was carried out on a small and limited scale, with most e-cigarette smokers previously being cigarette smokers. This duplicity makes it difficult to clearly identify if the study results are strictly related to use of e-cigarettes and vapor smoke.
There have been numerous studies about the harm of e-cigarettes in relation to that of regular cigarettes. However, what makes the study extremely important is its analysis of the unique or novel ways that e-cigarettes could be causing harm to our bodies.
In increasing number of studies previously published have revealed how it is a healthier lifestyle choice to switch from regular cigarettes to e-cigarettes. But, new researches have begun to trace the long-term adverse effects of e-cigarettes, which are challenging this switch.
If you are still wondering, the only completely healthy alternative to cigarette smoking is to completely quit smoking.