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Knowing the importance of SPF, better choose the cream which has broad-spectrum as it will create a shield around your skin from UVA rays. Unsplash

SPF known as Sun Protection Factor is an indicator of how effectively it can protect the skin from harmful sun rays. We need to buy a good sunscreen with a good amount of SPF. But we also need to keep in mind certain factors while choosing the right SPF.

Aseem Sood, Managing director Provena India shares how one has to be careful while choosing the right SPF for one skin.

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* Go for broad-spectrum: Knowing the importance of SPF, better choose the cream which has broad-spectrum as it will create a shield around your skin from UVA rays as well, besides UVB rays. UVA rays cause premature aging and skin cancer, on the other hand, exposure to UVB rays may lead to sunburn and skin cancer.

* Know the SPF level: There are various SPF levels but SPF 15, 30, and 50 are mostly talked about. Most of the time SPF 15 is recommended but we would suggest going for a higher one like SPF 30. Using this higher version ensures higher protection and for a longer time. Please note, even the dermatologist suggests using SPF 15 OR 30. Make sure it is applied properly and at stated intervals.

* Sweat/Water-resistant: Before buying make sure the SPF cream is sweat or water-resistant, especially for those who are going to take a dip in a pool or a beach. Cream with water-resistant is sticky therefore you need to reapply it after every 2-3 hours.

There are various SPF levels but SPF 15, 30, and 50 are mostly talked about. Pixabay

* Check the ingredients: If you are allergic to certain ingredients then you must check the ingredient section for it. One of the most unsafe ingredients is oxybenzone, which upsets the hormonal balance and can cause an allergic reaction too. Try to pick up a sunscreen that contains natural or herbal components rather than loads of chemicals.

ALSO READ: Your Comprehensive Guide To Choosing The Best Sunscreen

* Go with cream-based SPF: There are many kinds of SPF sunscreens available in the market, but we recommend the ones with a creamy base. Do not use sprays as they contain nano-particles that are likely to enter the bloodstream and may lead to various health issues.

* Expiry Date: Last but not the least, always check the expiry date. The expired products not only lose their efficiency, but they also tend to damage the skin. (IANS/KB)



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Photo by Flickr

Milky Way galaxy as seen from Chitkul Valley

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has for the first time spotted signs of a planet transiting a star outside of the Milky Way galaxy, opening up a new avenue to search for exoplanets at greater distances than ever before.

The possible exoplanet -- or planets outside of our Solar System -- candidate is located in the spiral galaxy Messier 51 (M51), also called the Whirlpool Galaxy because of its distinctive profile, NASA said in a statement.

Astronomers have, so far, found all other known exoplanets and exoplanet candidates in the Milky Way galaxy, almost all of them less than about 3,000 light-years from Earth.

An exoplanet in M51 would be about 28 million light-years away, meaning it would be thousands of times farther away than those in the Milky Way, NASA said.

"We are trying to open up a whole new arena for finding other worlds by searching for planet candidates at X-ray wavelengths, a strategy that makes it possible to discover them in other galaxies," said Rosanne Di Stefano of the Center for Astrophysics at Harvard and Smithsonian (CfA) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who led the study.

The findings are published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

The exoplanet candidate was spotted in a binary system called M51-ULS-1, located in M51. This binary system contains a black hole or neutron star orbiting a companion star with a mass about 20 times that of the Sun. The X-ray transit they found using Chandra data lasted about three hours, during which the X-ray emission decreased to zero.

Based on this and other information, the team estimates the exoplanet candidate in M51-ULS-1 would be roughly the size of Saturn and orbit the neutron star or black hole at about twice the distance of Saturn from the Sun.

The team looked for X-ray transits in three galaxies beyond the Milky Way galaxy, using both Chandra and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton. Their search covered 55 systems in M51, 64 systems in Messier 101 (the "Pinwheel" galaxy), and 119 systems in Messier 104 (the "Sombrero" galaxy).

However, more data would be needed to verify the interpretation as an extragalactic exoplanet. One challenge is that the planet candidate's large orbit means it would not cross in front of its binary partner again for about 70 years, thwarting any attempts for a confirming observation for decades, NASA said.

Named in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the Chandra X-ray Observatory is the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. It has eight times greater resolution and is able to detect sources more than 20-times fainter than any previous X-ray telescope.

Known to the world as Chandra (which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit), Chandrasekhar was widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the twentieth century. (IANS/JB)

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