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Kathakali: Cultural preserver of classic tales

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By Akash Shukla

Based on Hinduism and charged with powerful drama, it unfolds drama, devotion, dance, and music. Kathakali does it all to create one of the most impressive forms of sacred theatre in the world.

Embracing centuries of tradition and culture, it is not just a dance-drama but a devotion act showcasing the perennial tug-of-war between good and evil.

From then to now, Kathakali continues to provide a window into the past and a sneak peek into the ancient traditions. Kathakali plays embalm these traditions and have preserved it for centuries now.

Indian tradition of story-telling has been beautifully carried forward through Kathakali as it dances and dramatises to carry forward the classic tales from one generation to the other.

 

The Origin

Apart from drawing its inspiration from the magnificent sculptures of temples depicting gods and goddesses of Ramayana and Mahabharatha, Kathakali also draws its encouragement from the temple rituals and from the classical drama forms, namely, Koodiyattam, Kootha, and Krishnanattam.

To preserve the meaning, essence, and spirituality, Brahmin priests (Namboodiri) memorized the stories and passed them on to the next generation.

Despite the king’s prowess in the area, Namboodiris wielded a lot of power and they played a pivotal role in preserving the stories, upholding the law and developing the spirituality.

When Brahmins travelled and settled in various parts of India, the culture and classic tales went along with them to innumerable places nationwide.

Hundreds of years later, these sacred tales were performed in the temple. And, the whole community vividly experienced the life of their ancestors and their story of evolution in material and spirituality.

 

Kathakali and its types

Known as Sampradäyaṃ (Malayalam: സമ്പ്രദായം); there are three leading Kathakali styles that differ from each other in subtleties but clear demarcations like gestures, hand positions choreographic profile, and stress on dance than drama. Many-a-time it was the other way round and the stress was on drama than dance. Out of the lot, the three Kathakali styles are:

Kalladikkodan Sampradyam, Vettathu Sampradayam

Kaplingadu Sampradayam

Of late, all Kathakali styles have boiled down to the northern Kalluvazhi and southern Thekkan styles.

Northern Kalluvazhi style was majorly developed by legend Pattikkamthodi Ravunni Menon (1881-1949). It is implemented in Kerala Kalamandalam. However, this department also teaches the southern style).

Kathakali’s fame, claim and contemporary offshoots

Drawing its roots from Kathakali techniques and aesthetics and stylised and developed by legend Guru Gopinath in the mid-20th century, Kerala Natanam dances its way to existence as a part Kathakali dance form.

Kathakali finds expression in Malayalam feature films like ParinayamMarattam,Vanaprastham, and Rangam.

Many docu-features and documentaries have been shot on Kathakali artistes like Keezhpadam Kumaran Nair, Kalamandalam Ramankutty Nair, Raman Pillai, Kalamandalam Krishnan Nair, Kottakkal Sivaraman, Kalamandalam Gopi, and Chenganoor.

 

Foraying into fiction, Kathakali finds place in Malayalam short story ‘Karmen’ by NS Madhavan and space in novels like ‘Keshabharam’ by PV Sreevalsan.

Arundhati Roy’s Booker prize-winning The God of Small Things witnesses a chapter on Kathakali

Even the Indo-Anglian work like Arundhati Roy‘s Booker prize-winning The God of Small Things has a chapter on Kathakali.

If the hope for Kathakali wasn’t already far from over, Anita Nair’s novel Mistress, which is suffused with the ethos of Kathakali, adds another feather to the cap of this Lit-cultural dancing saga…

 

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Here is all you need to Do to Get a Perfect Figure

Simple steps you can take to get a perfect figure in few days.

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How to get a fit body?
How to get a fit body?.Pixabay

New Delhi, November 8: Do you turn green with envy when you see Miss India’s hourglass figure? Here is a diet chart and workout regime that you must follow to attain that perfect figure and fit body.

Arushi Verma, Co-Founder, FITPASS, and celebrity nutritionist Nmami Agarwal, who is the fitness guru of Miss India World 2017 Manushi Chhillar, suggest how to have a fit body:

* Don’t skip breakfast: Skipping breakfast increases hunger pangs by the end of the day.

* Eat regular meals and use smaller plates: Eating regular meals helps to reduce the temptation to snack on food that is high in fat and sugar.

* Avoid sugar, especially refined sugar.

Sample menu

* Early morning: Water two to three glasses (warm with or without lemon squeezed)

* Breakfast: Plain/unflavoured yogurt with oatmeal or wheat flakes and fresh fruits and seeds or two to three egg whites with avocado, carrot, beets and sweet potato.

* Mid-meal: Coconut water followed by fruits.

* Lunch: Quinoa/rice/chapati with a bowl of vegetables and shredded chicken/lentils.

* Evening: Unsalted nuts followed by fruit or banana and fig smoothie.

* Dinner: Chicken/fish (grilled/roasted) with sautéed vegetables (broccoli/carrots/beans/mushrooms/beets).

Many models have to travel and, hence, are forced to eat out.

While traveling, make healthy diet choices. Order foods such as grilled chicken or fish and avoid having a creamy sauce along with it. Instead of the main course, opt for an appetizer. Always order a salad along with your meal, but choose only low-fat dressings.

* Practise yoga regularly: Yoga is a great form of exercise to maintain a fit body posture and keep muscles toned. Apart from providing a slim figure, yoga is also beneficial for increasing flexibility and core strength of your body.

* Twisting: For an over-all body warm-up and fit body, core twisting is the most effective exercise to lengthen, strengthen, detox and tone your entire body. Being an effective cardio workout, core twisting also helps to eliminate pain, inflammation and internal scar tissue formation.

* Squats: This is one exercise which should be part of everyone’s workout routine — regardless of age, gender or fitness goals. They’re not just for legs; they benefit the whole body in a multitude of ways. Apart from toning and maintaining thigh and bottom muscles, squats also help in increasing entire body strength and muscle, improving circulation, getting rid of cellulite etc.

* Run or just dance: The best way to de-stress your body is to go for a run or just start dancing to your favorite tunes.(IANS)